The RussiaUkraine confrontation in the Black Sea through the lens of the grain deal

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The RussiaUkraine confrontation in the Black Sea through the lens of the grain deal
// Pathways to Peace and Security. 2023. No 2 (65). P. 148-168
DOI: 10.20542/2307-1494-2023-2-148-168

Abstract. The launch of Russia’s special military operation in Ukraine was marked by the closure of a sufficiently large water area of the northwestern part of the Black Sea that Russia declared a “temporarily dangerous area” where it could not guarantee the safety of navigation. This affected the interests of both Ukraine and neutral states in the field of maritime trade. At the request of the UN Secretary-General, the Russian Federation formed a sea corridor for the safe transportation of the Ukrainian grain and other products in order to address the problem of hunger and food insecurity in most vulnerable states. This initiative was implemented until Russia pressed reasonable charges of complete violation of the peaceful spirit of the grain deal by Ukraine. Russia’s withdrawal from the “grain deal” marked the return to the regime of the temporarily dangerous area, which Ukraine and its foreign partners hastened to declare a full-fledged blockade. The formation of such a “closed” area for shipping and accusations of blockade require a legal analysis of the situation.

Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, Black Sea, “grain deal”, temporarily dangerous area, security zones, exclusion zones, blockade, special military operation, international armed conflict, San-Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed conflicts at Sea


About author

Pavel Gudev heads the Research Group on the U.S. and Canadian Policy in the World Ocean, Center for North American Studies, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO).


For citation:
Gudev P. The RussiaUkraine confrontation in the Black Sea through the lens of the grain deal // Pathways to Peace and Security. 2023. No 2 (65). P. 148-168. https://doi.org/10.20542/2307-1494-2023-2-148-168



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2023, No. 2 (65)
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