// Pathways to Peace and Security. 2022. No 2 (63). P. 99-124
Abstract. The modern civilization has faced a number of problems of a planetary scale, and not only its condition, but, perhaps, its very existence will depend on solving these problems. One of the most urgent ones is the global food problem (GFP) – the ability of humanity to provide itself with sufficient food while fulfilling a number of related conditions within the framework of the concept of sustainable development. The article examines the state and possibility of solving the GFP in the Western Hemisphere, both in the region as a whole and in the context of individual countries. Following the structure of the GFP factors, the availability of natural resources for agricultural purposes, as well as the volume and sectoral structure of production of main agricultural products are analyzed. The author assesses the near-term prospects of the possibility of providing the population of individual countries with sufficient food by using model calculations that depend on two factors: availability of arable land and economic well-being (per capita GDP). Special attention is also paid to the analysis of the environmental aspect of the GFP, in assessing both the current state of the problem in the region and the prospects for its solution. This factor is seen as one of the keys to development of food systems in several Latin American countries. Certain attention is also paid to some "new" GFP factors, such as the problem of food losses (quite relevant for developed countries, especially for the United States), as well as logistics. Disruptions of logistical chains during market shocks (for example, during the COVID-19 pandemic) has posed a major problem for countries with highly developed food markets. In conclusion, the region's overall position in the global food system is seen as quite strong. At the same time, the differences between some countries on a number of indicators that determine the level of food security is very significant. Thus, the region’s prospects in terms of solving the GPP will largely depend on the ability/determination of individual countries to offset the negative impact of a number of GFP factors.
Keywords: global food problem, food security, sustainable development, sustainable development goals, agricultural sector, Western Hemisphere, agriculture of the Americas
Oleg Ovchinnikov is a Head of the Center of Agrarian Problems, Institute for US and Canadian Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences.
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