The main focus of the Fall-Winter issue of “Pathways to Peace and Security” (no. 2 (61), 2021) is on international databases on peace agreements, peace indexes, and the use of mathematical methods in peace and conflict studies. Two key datasets on peace agreements based in and managed by the Uppsala University and Edinburgh University, respectively, as well as the composite Global Peace Index are discussed by leading methodologists from Sweden, the UK, and Australia. Russian research input in the field is presented by an original mathematical model of secessions in the post-Soviet space. In other thematic sections of this issue, European and Russian experts explore the current state of and potential solutions for the Israeli-Palestinian problem. This is followed by analyses of verification aspects and hurdles of, and prospects of negotiations on, the Iran nuclear deal, including by Iranian scholars. The arms control agenda is reflected in a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Russian approaches to the idea of introducing an international regime for cyber-weapons proliferation control. International aspects of countering the Covid-19 pandemic and of vaccine diplomacy are explored in the case of the Central Asian states and region.