Switzerland A New Reading of Neutrality

15
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-4-26-34
EDN: QBEIHX
Institute of International Studies, MGIMO University, 76, Vernadskogo Prosp., Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation.
 

Received 08.08.2023. Revised 07.12.2023. Accepted 14.02.2024.

Abstract. The evolution of the key principle of Swiss foreign policy – “armed neutrality” – is analyzed in the context of radical changes in the world community associated with the emergence of new threats and challenges. The confrontation between Russia and the United States, which entered an acute phase in Ukraine, led to the transformation of the positions of traditional European neutrals – Finland and Sweden. Switzerland did not stand aside. Having found itself under double pressure – external and internal – the Swiss leadership supported all the packages of anti-Russian sanctions adopted by the European Union, which led to a forced adjustment of the policy of neutrality. In order to maintain a balance between expressing solidarity with the position of the Western countries and maintaining neutrality, the strategy of “cooperative neutrality” was adopted in Bern. It proposes, taking into account new challenges, to move from “passive” to “active” neutrality, namely, to expand cooperation, including military, “with like-minded states on the basis of common values.” But at the same time, maintain a dialogue with other countries in order, on the one hand, to show solidarity with partners, and on the other, to continue interaction and act as mediators in resolving conflicts. However, Russia believes that having joined the anti-Russian sanctions, Switzerland has already lost its neutrality status, which means it cannot mediate in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, including providing its platform for negotiations between the parties. Therefore in August 2022, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs refused Berne’s offer to represent Ukraine’s diplomatic interests in Russia.

Keywords: Russia, Switzerland, Ukraine, policy of neutrality, sanctions


REFERENCES

1. Widmer P. Schweizer Aussenpolitik. Von Pictet de Rochemont bis Edouard Brunner. Zürich, NZZ-Libro, 2014. 214 p.

2. Villiger K. Demokratie und konzeptionelles Denken. Politik im Spannungsfeld von ökonomischen Zwängen, Emotionen und Zufällen; Schriften des Schweizerischen Instituts für Auslandforschung. Zürich, NZZ Libro, 2015. 112 p.

3. Calmy-Rey M. Pour une neutralité active. De la Suisse à l’Europe. Lausanne, EPFL Press, 2021. 168 p.

4. Huber-Saladin J. Les Petits États et la neutralité continentale – Dans la situation actuelle de l’Europe (Histoire) (French Edition). Collection XIX, 2016. 88 p.

5. Spring A. The International Law Concept of Neutrality in the 21st Century. An Analysis of Contemporary Neutrality with a Focus on Switzerland. Dike Law Books, 2014. 294 p.

6. Greminger T., Rickli J.-M. Neutrality After the Russian Invasion of Ukraine: The Example of Switzerland and Some Lessons for Ukraine. PRISM, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 27-43. Available at: https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/3511995/neutrality-after-the-russian-invasion-of-ukraine-the-example-of-switzerland-and/ (accessed 07.12.2023).

7. Krivov S.V., Tolkachev V.V. Neutrality: Integration Processes in Europe. Contemporary Europe, 2019, no. 5, pp. 100-109. (In Russ.) Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/soveurope52019100109

8. Fokina S.V. The Basic Stages of Forming and Developing Neutrality in the European Space (by the Example of Switzerland and Austria). Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art criticism. Questions of theory and practice, 2016, no. 3 (65), pp. 183-187. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.elibrary.ru/download/elibrary_25514914_97877938.pdf (accessed 07.12.2023).

9. Jürg M. Swiss Foreign Policy, 1945–2002. London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2003. 214 p.

10. Ziegler J. La Suisse, l’or et les morts. Montrouge, Seuil, 2009. 270 p.

11. Sam J. A very Swiss identity crisis. The country’s sense of self as a haven for the world’s money and a beacon of neutrality is being shaken. Financial Times, 25.03.2023. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/e74c0556-5e60-4ab2-9876-7ac687b1d021 (accessed 07.12.2023).

12. de Gruyter C. The EU’s Next Big Problem Is Switzerland. Europe is facing its first post-Brexit test of how tough it should be with its close neighbors. Foreign Policy, 22.03.2021. Available at: https://foreignpolicy.com/2021/04/22/the-eus-next-big-problem-is-switzerland/ (accessed 12.02.2024).

13. Schmid A. Exporte in die Ukraine von Kryptotechnik, Lasern und Minengerätenschnellenhoch. Sonntags Zeitung, 20.05.2023. Available at: https://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/exporte-in-die-ukraine-von-kryptotechnik-lasern-und-minengeraeten-schnellen-hoch-733359382881 (accessed 12.02.2024).

14. Häfliger M. Das bedeutet Putins Invasion für die Zukunft der Schweiz. Tages-Anzeiger, 02.03.2022. Available at: https://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/das-bedeutet-putins-invasion-fuer-die-zukunft-der-schweiz-219149935215 (accessed 12.02.2024).

15. Elhardt Ch. “Neutrality is only one means among many”. ETH Zürich, 09.05.2022. Available at: https://ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2022/05/neutrality-is-only-one-means-among-many.html (accessed 12.02.2024).

16. Frammery C. “La neutralité suisse ne plait pas aux medias occidentaux”. Le Temps, 17.03.2023. Available at: https://www.letemps.ch/opinions/revues-presse/neutralite-suisse-ne-plait-aux-medias-occidentaux (accessed 12.02.2024).

17. Tresch T., Wenger A. at al. Studie Sicherheit 2023: Aussen-, Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitische Meinungsbildung im Trend. Zürich, Center for Security Studies (CSS), 2023. 96 p. Available at: https://www.newsd.admin.ch/newsd/message/attachments/76327.pdf (accessed 12.02.2024).


SOURCES

1. Évolution actuelle en Ukraine. Déclaration du président de la Confédération Ignazio Cassis. Le Conseil Federal, 24.02.2022. Available at: https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/documentation/communiques.msg-id-87336.html (accessed 17.03.2023).

2. Rapport Complémentaire au rapport sur la politique de sécurité 2021, sur les conséquences de la guerre en Ukraine. Rapport du Conseil fédéral. Bern, 07.09.2022. Available at: https://www.fedlex.admin.ch/eli/fga/2022/2357/fr (accessed 12.02.2024).

3. Neutrality. Federal Department of Foreign. Available at: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/foreign-policy/international-law/neutrality.html (accessed 12.02.2024).

4. AVIS28: Switzerland in the world 2028. Federal Department of Foreign, 02.07.2019. Available at: https://www.eda.admin.ch/publikationen/en/eda/schweizer-aussenpolitik/avis28-bericht-190619-DE.html (accessed 22.07.2023).

5. “Die Wirklichkeit ist multilateral”. Le Conseil Federal, 23.05.2022. Available at: https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/documentation/communiques.msg-id-88955.html (accessed 07.12.2023).

6. “Osez innover, osez anticiper!” Federal Department of Foreign, 22.08.2022. Available at: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/fdfa/fdfa/aktuell/reden.html/content/eda/en/meta/speeches/2022/8/22/90017.html (accessed 12.02.2024).

7. Clarity and guidance on neutrality policy. Federal Council report in response to Postulate 22.3385 put forward by the Council of States Foreign Affairs Committee (FAC-S), 11.04.2022. The Federal Counci, Bern, 26.10.2022. Available at: https://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/media-releases.msg-id-90895.html (accessed 12.02.2024).

8. Le Conseil fédéral présente le projet de stratégie de politique extérieure 2024–2027. Le Conseil Federal, 29.09.2023. Available at: https://www.admin.ch/gov/fr/accueil/documentation/communiques.msg-id-97977.html (accessed 12.02.2024).


For citation:
Chernyavskii S. Switzerland A New Reading of Neutrality. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2024, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 26-34. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-4-26-34 EDN: QBEIHX



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.