Clusters as Drivers of Regional Economic Development: Analysis of US Practice

51
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-2-27-38
EDN: TEQZJR
S. Rastvortseva, SRastvortseva@gmail.com
HSE University, 17/1, Malaya Ordynka Str., Moscow, 119017, Russian Federation.
N. Cherepovskaya, NAherepovskaya@fa.ru
Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 49/2, Leningradsky Prosp., Moscow, 125167, Russian Federation.

Received 26.06.2023. Revised 25.10.2023. Accepted 29.11.2023.

Acknowledgements. The study was prepared with the support of a grant from the Faculty of World Economy and International Affairs at HSE University.


Abstract. Clusters are becoming one of the drivers of regional and national economic growth. Accumulating around themselves a number of advantages of territorial concentration of economic activity, clusters contribute to innovative development, improving the quality of labor resources, promoting companies to world markets, increasing their competitiveness. The purpose of the article is to define the cluster as a driver of regional economic development based on the analysis of US practice. To do this, the definition of clusters is given and their types are highlighted, the key subjects and the benefits created are identified, the direction of influence on the economy of the regions is formulated, the analysis of US clusters is carried out and modern development trends are identified. It is certain that the cluster in the region has an impact on economic development, forming the sectoral structure of the economy, creating political incentives, increasing competitiveness and productivity, attracting new companies and in other ways. It is shown that clusters can be divided into two groups: oriented to the external market (traded) and internal (local). This classification is important because clusters of the two groups manifest themselves differently in the regions. “External” clusters are interconnected by common technologies and highly skilled workers, they are concentrated in several regions, form the “core” of the regional economy and create a block of service industries. The development of this cluster group is well explained by the theories of exporting regions. The analysis of economic clusters according to the Institute of Strategy and Competitiveness of Harvard Business School showed that the average number of industries in clusters of this group is higher, there is close connectivity between clusters, there is growth in innovative, creative, educational and environmental clusters. The clusters of the group are oriented to the external market, and therefore they are distinguished by a high number of patents received. The construction of the model showed that the growth of the cluster depends on the initial number of employees, the level of wages and the number of patents received. Clusters focused on the domestic market are larger in the number of industries, differ in low wages and require little patenting. The analysis of the distribution of clusters by the number of employees according to Zipf’s law (the “rank-size” rule) showed the validity of such a division of clusters into groups. In conclusion, some current trends in the development of clusters were formulated.

Keywords: economic clusters, innovation clusters, industrial clusters, cluster organization of regional economy, Zipf’s law, US economy


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For citation:
Rastvortseva S., Cherepovskaya N. Clusters as Drivers of Regional Economic Development: Analysis of US Practice. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2024, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 27-38. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-2-27-38 EDN: TEQZJR



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