Chinese-Style Modernization: Evolution of the Concept

52
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-1-31-47
EDN: CHMGAJ
Institute of China and Contemporary Asia, Russian Academy of Sciences (ICCA RAS), 32, Nakhimovskii Prosp., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 11.08.2023. Revised 05.09.2023. Accepted 07.11.2023.

Abstract. The concept of “Chinese-style modernization” formulated in the end of the 1970s has been at the center of attention of the Chinese leadership and researchers since the beginning of this decade. The notion of primacy of national characteristics was transformed from a former reference to China’s weakness and backwardness to current focus on development success. Explanations of plans for China’s “basic socialist modernization” by 2035 formed the channel of influence of official policy on the academic discussions. The article analyzes contemporary Chinese comparisons of Chinese and Western paths of modernization along with theoretical reflections on the patterns of “Chinese-style modernization”. The determination to make China’s experience a reference point for policy decisions in developing countries is connected with studies in modernization theory. The question of the correlation between the general patterns of modernization and the specifics of the Chinese path of development has come to the fore. The emphasis on the differences between Chinese-style modernization and Western and Soviet models substantiates the theoretical possibility of a new development perspective for other countries, and encourages them to develop independent modernization strategies based on their own national specifics. Chinese researchers consider attempts by backward countries to copy the advanced institutions of developed nations as useless and even dangerous. China’s modernization is not complete, in the field of economic development there are mounting difficulties related to lagging behind in science and technology, deteriorating external environment, slowing growth, ageing population. While examining Chinese studies of Chinese-style modernization, it is appropriate to focus on the development of academic concepts, quantitative evaluation system and discursive system. Explorations in theory will be determined by practical achievements, first of all, by China’s ability to maintain sustainable balanced growth of the economy. The preliminary outcome can be assessed in the middle of the next decade, when China plans to build the foundations of modernization. The final judgement on the effectiveness of Chinese-style modernization will be made only after the results of China’s plans to become a world leader are known in the middle of this century.

Keywords: CPC, Deng Xiaoping, Xi Jinping, national characteristics, Western model, developing countries, economic reforms, modernization theory


REFERENCES

1. Luo Rongqu. A new conception of modernization: The modernization process in the world and China (Revised and enlarged ed.). Beijing, Commercial Press, 2009. 546 p. (In Chin.)

2. Lin Yifu, Fu Caihui, Yao Yang, et al. The Reader of Chinese Approach to Modernization: Connotation and Path. Beijing, CITIC Press Group, 2023. 320 p. (In Chin.)

3. Jiang Yu. A New World is Possible: The Modernization of China. CITIC Press Corporation, Springer Singapore, 2023. 388 p. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-8918-6  

4. Hu Angang. Modernization with Chinese Characteristics and Great Power. Springer Singapore, 2023. 201 p. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-3397-6  

5. Zhang Bohan, He Haigen. A Review of Research on Key Issues of Chinese-style Modernization in Chinese Academic Circles in Recent Years. Scientific Socialism, 2023, no. 2, pp. 152-161. (In Chin.)

6. Research Focus Group of Economics and Management. Analysis of China’s Economics and Management Research Focus in 2022. Economic Perspectives, 2023, no. 3, pp. 36-51. (In Chin.)

7. Luo Rundong, Yang Ming, Han Yu. Analysis of the China’s Economics Research Focus in 2022. Economic Perspectives, 2023, no. 4, pp. 115-133. (In Chin.)

8. Smirnov D.A. Ideological and political aspects of China’s modernization: from Mao Zedong to Deng Xiaoping. Moscow, IFES RAS, 2005. 323 p. (In Russ.)

9. Vinogradov A.V. Chinese model of modernization. The search for a new identity. Moscow, Pamyatniki Istoricheskoi Mysli, 2005. 335 p. (In Russ.)

10. Liu Wei. Chinese-style Modernization and Chinese Economics. Contemporary Economic Research, 2023, no. 2, pp. 14-16. (In Chin.)

11. Borokh O.N. Debating the path of China’s development in the early 1930s: from “westernization” to “modernization”. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Asian and African Studies, 2015, iss. 2, pp. 73-86. (In Russ.)

12. Gu Hailiang. Exploring the Discourse and Doctrine of Chinese-style Modernization. Theoretical Horizon, 2022, no. 11, pp. 26-34. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.19632/j.cnki.11-3953/a.2022.11.004

13. Luo Rongqu. New Perspectives on Historical Development and the Course of Modernization in East Asia. Chinese Studies in History, vol. 43, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 17-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/CSH0009-4633430102  

14. He Chuanqi. Hierarchy Structure and Three Recommendations on Chinese Approach to Modernization. Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2023, vol. 38, iss. 3, art. 15, pp. 484-491. (In Chin.) Available at: https://bulletinofcas.researchcommons.org/journal/vol38/iss3/15  

15. Li Peilin. Chinese-style Modernization and New Developmental Sociology. Social Sciences in China, 2021, no. 12, pp. 4-21, 199. (In Chin.)

16. Lin Yifu, Fu Caihui. The Blueprint, Connotation and Primary Task of Chinese Path to Modernization: From the Perspective of New Structural Economics. Economic Review, 2022, no. 6, pp. 3-17. (In Chin.)

17. Jiang Yongmu, Li Xiang, Tang Yong. The Construction of Chinese-style Modernization Evaluation Index System. Reform, 2022, no. 12, pp. 22-35. (In Chin.)

18. Guo Han, Ren Baoping. Common Prosperity in the Process of Chinese-style Modernization: Practice and Path Choice. Reform, 2022, no. 7, pp. 16-25. (In Chin.)

19. Hu Leming, Hu Huaiguo. Analysis of the Political Economy of Chinese-style Modernization. China Review of Political Economy, 2023, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 14-29. (In Chin.)

20. Pei Changhong. The Diversity of World Civilization and the New form of Chinese Path to Modernization Civilization. Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences, 2023, no. 5, pp. 1-12, 20. (In Chin.)

21. Zhou Shaodong, Chen Yidan. Chinese Economics: A Theoretical Expression of the New Path of Chinese-style Modernization. Inner Mongolia Social Sciences, 2022, no. 4, pp. 106-114. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.14137/j.cnki.issn1003-5281.2022.04.014  

22. Zhang Zhenhua. Chinese-style Modernization Road from the Perspective of Comparative Political Economy: Scientific Connotation and Civilization Connotation. The Journal of Humanities, 2022, no. 3, pp. 1-12. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.15895/j.cnki.rwzz.2022.03.002

23. Research Group of Chinese-type Modernization (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). Theoretical Cognition, Economic Prospects and Strategic Tasks of Chinese Path to Modernization. Economic Research Journal, 2022, no. 8, pp. 26-39. (In Chin.)

24. Dong Biao. The Traditional Cultural Foundation of Chinese-type Modernization. Journal of Northeast Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences), 2023, no. 3, pp. 33-40. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.16164/j.cnki.22-1062/c.2023.03.004

25. Ren Jiantao. Redrawing the National Blueprint: “Chinese-style Modernization” in the Framework of “World”. Journal of the Central Institute of Socialism, 2023, no. 3, pp. 5-19. (In Chin.)

26. Li Xinfeng. Implications of the Chinese-style Modernization Path for Africa’s Development. Studies on Marxism, 2022, no. 4, pp. 1-10, 155. (In Chin.)

27. He Qinglian. The Pitfalls of Modernization: Economic and Social Problems in Contemporary China. Beijing, China Today Publishing House, 1998. 394 p. (In Chin.)

28. Xia Jinwen, Lü Yonggang. Escaping the Modernization Trap: A Chinese Approach and Its Value Today. Journal of Modernization Studies, 2022, no. 1, pp. 51-64.(In Chin.)

29. Feng Ran, Chen Xixi. The Dynamic Mechanism, Structural Elements and Misunderstanding Avoidance of Chinese-style Modernization Discourse. Studies in Ideological Education, 2023, no. 4, pp. 10-16. (In Chin.)

30. Han Baojiang, Li Zhibin. Chinese-style Modernization: Features, Challenges and Paths. Journal of Management World, 2022, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 29-43. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.19744/j.cnki.11-1235/f.2022.0154

31. Xia Jiechang. High-quality Development of the Real Economy from the Perspective of Chinese Path to Modernization. Reform, 2022, no. 10, pp. 1-11. (In Chin.)

32. Zhang Wenkui. Chinese-style Modernization from the Perspective of Economic Growth. Reform, 2023, no. 6, pp. 1-14. (In Chin.)

33. Wang Yuesheng, Ma Xiangdong, Liu Dingyi. Building a Modern Economic System, fostering a New Development Paradigm and Promoting Chinese-style Modernization. Reform, 2022, no. 10, pp. 12-23. (In Chin.)

34. Zhang Yaguang, Bi Yue. A Century of Exploration and Practical Experience in Chinese-style Modernization. Journal of Management World, 2023, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 41-56. (In Chin.) DOI: 10.19744/j.cnki.11-1235/f.2023.0012


SOURCES

1. The Chronicles of Deng Xiaoping (1975–1997). Beijing, Central Documentary Press, 2004. 1386 p. (In Chin.)

2. Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (Vol. 2). Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1994. 446 p. (In Chin.)

3. Excerpts from Xi Jinping’s speeches on socialist economic construction. Comp. by Party Literature Research Center, CPC Central Committee. Beijing, Central Party Literature Press, 2017. 334 p. (In Chin.)

4. Xi Jinping. Speech at the Fifth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth CPC Central Committee (Excerpts). Qiushi Journal, 2016, no. 1. (In Chin.) Available at: http://www.qstheory.cn/dukan/2020-06/04/c_1126073270.htm (accessed 01.11.2023).

5. Xi Jinping. Speech at a ceremony marking the centenary of the Communist Party of China (July 1, 2021). People’s Daily, 02.07.2021. (In Chin.)

6. Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century (Adopted at the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on November 11, 2021). People’s Daily, 17.11.2021. (In Chin.)

7. Xi Jinping. Hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics and strive in unity to build a modern socialist country in all respects – Report to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (October 16, 2022). People’s Daily, 26.10.2022. (In Chin.)

8. Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the opening ceremony of the seminar on studying and implementing the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, emphasizing correct understanding and vigorously promoting Chinese-style modernization. People’s Daily, 08.02.2023. (In Chin.)

9. Xi Jinping. Join Hands on the Path Towards Modernization – Keynote Address at the CPC in Dialogue with World Political Parties High-level Meeting (March 15, 2023). People’s Daily, 16.03.2023. (In Chin.)


For citation:
Borokh O., Lomanov A. Chinese-Style Modernization: Evolution of the Concept. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2024, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 31-47. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2024-68-1-31-47 EDN: CHMGAJ



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.