Global Climate Agenda: Big Gamble

60
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-9-15-30
EDN: HGZGTU
T. Rovinskaya, mirtania@gmail.com
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 15.02.2023. Revised 20.02.2023. Accepted 04.07.2023.

Acknowledgements. The article was prepared within the project “Post-Crisis World Order: Challenges and Technologies, Competition and Cooperation” supported by the grant from Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation program for research projects in priority areas of scientific and technological development (Agreement 075-15-2020-783).


Abstract. The article considers one of the most relevant and, at the same time, the most controversial topics of international politics – tackling climate change (global warming). The author attempts to answer a question: is the global climate agenda a natural priority, or is it being promoted intentionally? On the one hand, global warming is a scientifically acknowledged process, encouraged by industrial emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, etc.), which may be harmful and dangerous for the environment and for humanity. On the other hand, climate change is one of many serious environmental problems that require urgent solution (such as water and soil pollutions, deforestation and desertification, loss of species, plastic waste and other). The question is: for what reason has the global warming been gaining increased attention for the last decades, primarily from Western states which not only proclaimed it their chief political goal, but have also been consequently promoting this agenda in the international arena? The Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) adopted in 1992 at the UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, with the additional Kyoto Protocol of 1997 and then the Paris Climate Agreement of 2015, aimed mainly at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, undergo a yearly “stock-taking” and promotion at the UN Climate Conferences. The European Union and its leading states (Germany and France) as well as the United States were the first to declare a “green transition” meaning a full decarbonization of their economies by 2050, expecting the rest of the world to follow this path as well. They have already spent billions of dollars for climate aims, including direct assistance to “fragile states”, and are ready to spend much more in the near future. Regular informal meetings at high level (the World Economic Forum in Davos, the Bled Strategic Forum) have also been mostly devoted to the climate agenda in recent years. Analyzing the results of climate-related events of the last decades and especially the last years, the author comes to a conclusion that the global climate agenda in its current form is being promoted intentionally and is a new form of struggle for world economic and political leadership.

Keywords: climate agenda, environmental policy, green transition, environmental pollution, greenhouse gases, emissions, United Nations, COP26, COP27, World Economic Forum in Davos


REFERENCES

1. Savenkova D. The European Union Will Invest 300 Billion Euros in Green Energetics. Vedomosti, 29.08.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/business/articles/2022/08/29/938157-evrosoyuz-investiruet-300-mlrd (accessed 10.01.2023).

2. Zhukov S.V., Kopytin V.A. Course towards Demethanization of Global Economy. IMEMO. 14.10.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.imemo.ru/publications/policy-briefs/text/demethanization-of-the-world-economy (accessed 10.01.2023).

3. Bazhan A.I., Roginko S.A. The EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism: Statute, Risks and Possible Answer. Analytical Note no. 44, 2020 (No. 227). Institute of Europe RAS. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.instituteofeurope.ru/images/uploads/analitika/2020/an227.pdf (accessed 07.01.2023).

4. Varnavskii V.G. Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism of the European Union: a New Tool of Global Governance. World Economy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 5-15. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-1-5-15 

5. Prengaman P. At Davos, Kerry Cites Progress on China–US Climate Group. AP News, 24.05.2022. Available at: https://apnews.com/article/russia-ukraine-world-economic-forum-climate-politics-technology-f783a29f3f1a54e6dc78f5efc0210e15 (accessed 07.01.2023).

6. James W., Bose M. COP27: Biden Says the Climate Crisis is about ‘Very Life of the Planet’. Reuters, 12.11.2022. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/business/environment/cop27-biden-says-climate-crisis-is-about-human-security-economic-security-2022-11-11/ (accessed 10.01.2023).

7. Vil’chinskii A. Results of the COP27 Summit in Egypt. Will We Be Able to Deviate from Highway into Climate Hell? Russian International Affairs Council. 24.11.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russiancouncil.ru/blogs/laiamp/itogi-sammita-cop27-v-egipte-smozhem-li-my-svernut-s-shosse-v-klimatich/ (accessed 10.01.2023).

8. Elfimova A. Results of COP27. Greenpeace. 21.11.2022. (In Russ.)

9. Vasilenko E. Final Results of COP27. Russian International Affairs Council. 28.11.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russiancouncil.ru/analytics-and-comments/columns/ecology/klyuchevye-itogi-cop27/ (accessed 10.01.2023).

10. Boyle L., Smith S. Cop27: Historic Deal Reached to Create Climate Damages Fund but Fails in Ambitious Emissions Cuts. Independent, 20.11.2022. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/cop27-decision-climate-egypt-b2228423.html (accessed 10.01.2023).

11. Delta Merner L. Report from COP27: The Fossil Fuel Industry Continues to Block the Path to Climate Justice. The Equation. Union of Concerned Scientists. Available at: https://blog.ucsusa.org/delta-merner/report-from-cop27-the-fossil-fuel-industry-continues-to-block-the-path-to-climate-justice/ (accessed 10.01.2023).

12. Almond D., Du X., Papp A. Favourability towards Natural Gas Relates to Funding Source of University Energy Centres. Nature Climate Change, 2022, no. 12, pp. 1122-1128. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-022-01521-3

13. Rovinskaya T.L. New Shape of Environmental Policy amid COVID‑19 Pandemic (Promotion of Green Agenda by European Union and United States). World Economy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 66-80. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-7-66-80

14. Belov V. Jubilee Davos 2020: Ecology and Populism. Russian International Affairs Council. 04.02.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russiancouncil.ru/analytics-and-comments/analytics/yubileynyy-davos-2020-ekologiya-i-populizm/ (accessed 06.02.2023).

15. Schwab K. Now Is the Time for a “Great Reset”. World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/now-is-the-time-for-a-great-reset/ (accessed 07.02.2023).

16. Makaryan I.A., Sedov I.V., Nikitin A.V., Arutyunov V.S. Modern Approaches to Obtaining Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Crude. Scientific Journal of the Russian Gas Society, 2020, no. 1 (24), pp. 50-68. (In Russ.) Available at: https://oilgascom.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/RGS-Scientific-Journal-1-2020-hydrogen.pdf (accessed 10.01.2023).


SOURCES

1. Technical Assessment of Nuclear Energy with Respect to the ‘Do No Significant Harm’ Criteria of Regulation (EU) 2020/852 (‘Taxonomy Regulation’). JRC Science for Policy Report. European Commission. 2021. Available at: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC125953 (accessed 06.02.2023).

2. The European Parliament Did Not Support the Refusal to Recognize Gas and Atom as “Clean Energy” in the EU. TASS, 06.07.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/15142177 (accessed 06.02.2023).

3. A European Green Deal. European Commission. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en#actions (accessed 07.02.2023).

4. Habeck Opposed the Embargo on Russian Gas. Izvestiya, 10.09.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://iz.ru/1393351/2022-09-10/khabek-vystupil-protiv-embargo-na-rossiiskii-gaz (accessed 10.02.2023).

5. 4 / Anthropogenic Impacts. World Wildlife Fund. (In Russ.) Available at: https://showslide.ru/antropogennie-vozdejstviya-aleksandr-chernukho-wwf-rossii-758852 (accessed 15.02.2023).

6. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change. United Nations. 11.12.1997. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/kyoto.shtml (accessed 13.02.2023).

7. The Paris Agreement. United Nations Climate Change. Available at: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement (accessed 13.02.2023).

8. Glasgow Climate Pact. Available at: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/cop26_auv_2f_cover_decision.pdf (accessed 13.02.2023).

9. Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement Synthesis. Report by the Secretariat. Framework Convention on Climate Change. United Nations. Available at: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/cma2022_04.pdf (accessed 13.02.2023).

10. The State of Nationally Determined Contributions: 2022. Report. World Resources Institute. Available at: https://files.wri.org/d8/s3fs-public/2022-10/state-of-ndcs-2022.pdf?VersionId=1KmRfYb85rXRRK2rYivyzxSDuUhdR60 (accessed 13.02.2023).

11. Climate Change 2022. Mitigation of Climate Change. Summary for Policymakers. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg3/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGIII_SPM.pdf (accessed 13.02.2023).

12. Emissions Gap Report 2022. UN Environment Programme. 27.10.2022. Available at: https://www.unep.org/resources/emissions-gap-report-2022 (accessed 13.02.2023).

13. Secretary-General’s Remarks to High-Level Opening of COP27. United Nations Secretary General. 07.11.2022. Available at: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2022-11-07/secretary-generals-remarks-high-level-opening-of-cop27 (accessed 09.02.2023).

14. Global Carbon Atlas. Available at: https://globalcarbonatlas.org/emissions/carbon-emissions/ (accessed 12.02.2023).

15. Secretary-General’s Remarks at Launch of Al Gore’s Climate TRACE Initiative. United Nations. 09.11.2022. Available at: https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/statement/2022-11-09/secretary-generals-remarks-launch-of-al-gores-climate-trace-initiative-delivered (accessed 12.02.2023).

16. Decisions Taken at the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change. United Nations Climate Change. Available at: https://unfccc.int/cop27/auv (accessed 14.02.2023).

17. Conference in Sharm El Sheikh: What One Needs to Know Not to “Get Lost” at the UN Climate Meeting. The United Nations. (In Russ.) Available at: https://news.un.org/ru/story/2022/10/1434097 (accessed 09.02.2023).

18. Greta Thunberg to Skip ‘Greenwashing’ COP27 Climate Summit in Egypt. The Guardian, 31.10.2022. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/oct/31/greta-thunberg-to-skip-greenwashing-cop27-climate-summit-in-egypt (accessed 12.02.2023).

19. On Results of the Davos Forum – 2021. Economic Policy. The Institute for Complex Strategic Studies (ICSS). 05.02.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://icss.ru/ekonomicheskaya-politika/globalnaya-povestka/davos-forum (accessed 09.02.2023).

20. Classification of Hydrogen by Color. Neftegaz.ru, 24.03.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://neftegaz.ru/tech-library/energoresursy-toplivo/672526-klassifikatsiya-vodoroda-po-tsvetu/ (accessed 09.02.2023).

21. “Blue” Hydrogen Has Proven to Be Less Environmentally Friendly than Burning Natural Gas or Coal. Novosti VPK, 09.09.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://vpk.name/news/540059_goluboi_vodorod_okazalsya_menee_ekologichnym_chem_szhiganie_prirodnogo_gaza_ili_uglya.html (accessed 09.02.2023).

22. Remarks Delivered at the 2022 World Economic Forum in Davos. Davos, Switzerland, May 24, 2022. George Soros. Available at: https://www.georgesoros.com/2022/05/24/remarks-delivered-at-the-2022-world-economic-forum-in-davos/ (accessed 09.02.2023).

23. The Story of Day 2 at Davos 2022. World Economic Forum. 24.05.2022. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/05/the-story-of-day-2-at-davos-2022/ (accessed 09.02.2023).

24. Ursula von der Leyen’s Speech to Davos 2022 in Full. World Economic Forum. 24.05.2022. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/05/ursula-von-der-leyens-speech-to-davos-2022-in-full (accessed 09.02.2023).

25. Davos‑2023. Expert, 23.01.2023. (In Russ.) Available at: https://expert.ru/expert/2023/04/davos-2023/ (accessed 09.02.2023).


For citation:
Rovinskaya T. Global Climate Agenda: Big Gamble. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 15-30. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-9-15-30 EDN: HGZGTU



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.