Spains Energy Security in the Context of the Algerian-Moroccan Conflict

54
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-9-48-57
EDN: TIXIDV
E. Cherkasova, Katya_Moscow@inbox.ru
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 31.05.2023. Revised 10.06.2023. Accepted 29.06.2023.

Abstract. The energy crisis experienced by the European Union and representing a serious non-military threat to its security has not bypassed Spain. This is a country with a high degree of dependence on hydrocarbon imports. However, the energy crisis there has a number of specific features. It began in autumn 2021, when Algeria – the main supplier of gas to Spain – severed diplomatic relations with Morocco and closed the gas pipeline GME passing through its territory. In March 2022, yielding to the pressure of Rabat, Madrid changed its position on Western Sahara, de facto recognizing its belonging to Morocco. Since the start of the special military operation in Ukraine and before the acceptance of the Moroccan autonomy plan, everything indicated that Spain could play a key role in meeting the EU new energy security needs through its privileged relationship with Algeria. Having temporarily normalized its relations with Morocco, Spain missed the opportunity to become a European gas hub, ceding this role to Italy. Currently, the very structure of the Spanish energy sector is changing, and the country is going to close all operating nuclear power plants. Madrid is betting on diversifying energy supplies, the Algerian gas is being replaced by the American LNG. Russian gas supplies to Spain, previously not so significant, continue to decrease. The country is set to make a serious contribution to the energy transition since it has numerous renewable energy sources, technologies, production capacities and developed infrastructure. Events in Ukraine have accelerated the already existing energy crisis. As energy prices increased, Spain put forward the initiative for the European Union to approve emergency measures to deal with it. The solution, according to Madrid, is the acceleration of the energy transition. Brussels has actually allowed Spain to set top prices for gas that is used to generate electricity, thus lowering the bills for customers. Within the EU framework Madrid has achieved recognition of the special energy status of the Iberian Peninsula, and together with France and Portugal intends to build a new gas pipeline that will supply Europe with green hydrogen and, in the transition period, with natural gas. In general, Spain, although not without difficulties, is rather successfully coping with the current energy crisis.

Keywords: Spain, P. Sanchez, Morocco, Algeria, Western Sahara, European Union, energy security, energy crisis, gas


REFERENCES

1. Cherkasova E. Spain and Conflict over Western Sahara. World Economy and International Relations, 2012, no. 7, pp. 33-40. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2012-7-33-40 

2. Cherkasova E. Gibraltar, Ceuta and Melilla: Spanish Territorial Problems. World Economy and International Relations, 2017, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 89-99. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-9-89-99 

3. Alsina . Sobre la crisis en Ceuta y el papel de Pedr Sánchez. Onda Cera, 19.052021. Available at: https://ondacero.es/programas/mas-de-uno/audios-podcast/monologo-de-alsina/alsina-ceuta-pedro-sanchez_2021051960a4b615acba010001d8f5bf.html (accessed 20.09.2022).

4. Mustafin R. War between Algeria and Morocco Comes to a Head. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 19.01.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.ng.ru/world/2022-01-19/6_8349_algeria.html (accessed 30.03.2023).

5. Llardén A. Hablando de seguridad energética, datos versus catastrofismo. El diario, 08.11.2021. Available at: https://www.eldiario.es/opinion/tribuna-abierta/hablando-seguridad-energetica-datos-versus-catastrofismo_129_8470607.html (accessed 30.04.2023).

6. Sicilia A. La crisis del gas con Argelia presagia un invierno complicado en España. Público, 27.10.2021. Available at: https://www.publico.es/actualidad/crisis-gas-argelia-presagia-invierno-complicado-espana.html (accessed 25.04.2023).

7. Barrero F.. España importa más petróleo de Rusia, Kazajistán y Azerbaián que de todo el Golfo Pérsico. Panorama, 07.03.2022. Available at: https://www.energias-renovables.com/panorama/espana-importa-mas-petroleo-de-rusia-kazajistan-20220307 (accessed 30.04.2023).

8. Esteller R. Rusia duplicó el precio de gas a España en diciembre mientras Argelia recortaba sus envios. El Economista, 01.03.2022. Available at: https://www.eleconomista.es/energia/noticias/11643713/03/22/Rusia-duplico-el-precio-de-gas-a-Espana-en-diciembre-mientras-Argelia-recortaba-sus-envios.html (accessed 15.03.2023).

9. Barinova A. Wind Has Become the Main Source of its Electrical Energy in Spain. Russpain.com, 21.12.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russpain.com/news/priroda/veter-stal-osnovnym-istochnikom-svoej-elektroenergii-v-ispanii/ (accessed 15.04.2023).

10. Fresneda D. España y Portugal consiguen que la UE reconozca la “excepciόn ibérica” para frenar los precios de la energía. Noticias, 25.03.2022. Available at: https://www.rtve.es/noticias/20220325/cumbre-europea-energia/2323141.shtml (accessed 15.07.2022).


SOURCES

1. España estrecha lazos con Marruecos y se compromete a garantizar su seguridad energética. Europa Press, 02.02.2022. Available at: https://www.20minutos.es/noticia/4950839/0/espana-estrecha-lazos-con-marruecos-y-se-compromete-a-garantizar-su-seguridad-energetica/ (accessed 17.04.2023).

2. La carta de Pedro Sánchez a Mohamed VI: Debemos construir nueva relación que evite futuras crisis. El País, 23.03.2022. Available at: https://elpais.com/espana/2022-03-23/la-carta-de-pedro-sanchez-a-mohamed-vi-debemos-construir-una-nueva-relacion-que-evite-futuras-crisis.html (accessed 15.04.2023).

3. Interview. Gonzalo Escribano, experto de Elcano: “Es inasumible que España siga siendo una isla energética en la UE” Fernando Heller. EUROEFE EURACTIV, 14.01.2022. Available at: https://elpais.com/espana/2022-03-23/la-carta-de-pedro-sanchez-a-mohamed-vi-debemos-construir-una-nueva-relacion-que-evite-futuras-crisis.html (accessed 30.04.2023).

4. ¿Dónde compra el gas España? Analizando la crisis energética. Activos, 29.06.2022. Available at: https://www.epe.es/es/economia/20220310/importa-gas-espana-13354317 (accessed 18.04.2023).

5. España compra ya más gas natural a EEUU que a Argelia y sólo el 5% procede de Rusia. El Independiente, 11.03.2022. Available at: https://www.elindependiente.com/economia/2022/03/11/espana-compra-ya-mas-gas-natural-a-eeuu-que-a-argelia-y-solo-el-5-procede-de-rusia/ (accessed 15.04.2023).

6. Spain Approves €16.3 Billion Plan to Develop Renewables, Green Hydrogen and Energy Storage. Enerdata, 16.12.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russia.enerdata.net/publications/energy-news/spain-green-hydrogen-storage-renewable-plan.html (accessed 18.04.2023).


For citation:
Cherkasova E. Spains Energy Security in the Context of the Algerian-Moroccan Conflict . World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 48-57. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-9-48-57 EDN: TIXIDV



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.