The Political Process in Modern France: Society and Power

24
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-8-37-47
EDN: VHUNBZ
N. Lapina, lapina_n@mail.ru
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAS), 51/21, Nakhimovskii Prosp., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 19.04.2023. Revised 03.05.2023. Accepted 17.05.2023.

Abstract. In modern France, power and society are developing in different directions. President E. Macron has built a rigid “vertical of power”, which was further strengthened under the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Power in France has exceptional autonomy and an ability to make and implement decisions that do not have public support. The president can implement reforms by decree, and the prime minister – relying on the Article 49.3 of the Constitution, which allows laws to be passed without a vote in parliament. Society, in turn, has become more demanding in the field of obtaining individual rights and expanding political rights. While power was growing more and more “vertical”, society developed in the opposite direction. The individual rights of citizens have expanded (legalization of same-sex unions and sex change); French citizens have become more demanding of representative institutions and politicians. It is customary to consider French society depoliticized. In reality, modern French people, even if they don’t go to the polls and don’t trust political parties, are interested in politics. The mood of “critical citizenship” has become widespread in society, an increasing number of citizens would like to participate in political decision-making, and the ideas of direct democracy are very popular. The multidirectional development of society and power inevitably gives rise to a systemic socio-political conflict. The protests against raising the retirement age from 62 to 64 that unfolded in France in 2023 were a continuation of the protest movements of past years. Three scenarios for the development of the political situation in France are formulated: normalization; political crisis and way out of it; renewal of the political regime.

Keywords: France, E. Macron, Fifth Republic, pension reform, society, power, elites, political process


REFERENCES

1. Duka A.V. Political Regime and Opportunities for Protest Activity. Aktual’nye problemy Evropy, 2023, no. 3. (In print). (In Russ.)

2. Rouban L. Sociologie politique des députés de la V République, 1958–2007. Les Cahers du CEVIPOF, 2011, no. 55. 126 p. Available at: https://www.sciencespo.fr/cevipof/sites/sciencespo.fr.cevipof/files/cahier_55.3_jp.pdf (accessed 10.10.2011).

3. Lapina N.Yu. Political Elite of France in the Beginning of the XXI Century: Motivation, Career Paths and Vocation. Vlast’ i elity, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 137-160. (In Russ.) Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=27700635 (accessed 10.04.2023).

4. Hoffmann-Lange U. Citizens and Elites in Times of Economic Crisis and Citizen Unrest. Vlast’ i elity, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 96-136. (In Russ.) Available at: http://socinst.ru/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/vlast_i_elite_tom1.pdf (accessed 10.12.2014).

5. Guilluy Ch. Les dépossédés. Paris, Flammarion, 2022. 234 p.

6. Semenenko I.S., Lapkin V.V., Pantin V.I. Social Divisions and Political Confrontations in Scientific Discourse: Evaluation and Classification Criteria. Polis. Political Studies, 2021, vol. 30, no. 5, . 56-77. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2021.05.07  

7. Piketty T. Le capital au XXI-e siècle. Paris, Seuil, 2013. 1015 p.

8. Townsend P. Poverty in the United Kingdom. Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1979. 1216 p.

9. Medushevskii A.N. The Theory of Constitutional Cycles. Moscow, Berlin, Direct Media, 2015. 936 . (In Russ.)

10. Troude-Chastenet P. The Social Movement of Protest in France. World Economy and International Relations, 2014, no. 6, pp. 124-125. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.imemo.ru/publications/periodical/meimo/archive/2014/6/researchers-opinion/the-social-movement-of-protest-in-france (accessed 10.04.2023).

11. Gauchet M., Conan E., Azouvi F. Macron, les leçons d’un échec. Comprendre le malheur français II. Paris, Stock, 2021. 303 p.

12. Lapina N.Yu. France: Living in a Pandemic. Rossiya i sovremennyi mir, 2022, no. 2, pp. 119-134. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.31249/rsm/2022.02.07

13. Rouban L. La vraie victoire du RN. Paris, Les Presses de Sciences Po, 2022. 164 p.

14. Robert C., ed. Confiner la démocratie. Les dépolitisations de l’action publique. Villeneuve-d’Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2021. 314 .

15. Perrineau P., Rouban L., eds. La politique en France et en Europe. Paris, Les presse de Sciences Po, 2007. 452 p.

16. Lasch Ch. The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy. Moscow, Progress, Logos, 2002. 224 p. (In Russ.)

17. Fourquet J. L’archipel français: Naissance d’une nation multiple et divisée. Paris, Le Seuil, 2019. 384 p.

18. Chauvel L. La spirale du déclassement. Essai sur la société des illusions. Paris, Seuil, 2016. 224 p.

19. Todd E. Les luttes de classes en France au XXI-e siècle. Paris, Seuil, 2020. 384 p.

20. Lapina N.Yu. The 2017–2022 Political Cycle in France: Institutions and Practices. Vlast’ i elity, 2022, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 5-26. (In Russ). Available at: https://doi.org/10.31119/pe.2022.9.2.1  

21. Duka A.V. Elites in a Crisis Society. Vlast’ i elity, 2022, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 5-36. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.31119/pe.2022.9.1.1  

22. Segaunes N. La réforme sera-t-elle soumise au vote des députés ou fera-t-elle l’objet d’un 49.3? L’Opinion, 16.03.2023. Available at: https://www.lopinion.fr/politique/retraites-macron-a-quitte-ou-double?utm_campaign=Edition%20de%207h30_16-03-2023 (accessed 16.03.2023).

23. Segaunes N. Comment gouverner après le 49.3? La décision du Président et de la Première ministre dépendra de l’appréciation du risque encouru. L’Opinion, 20.03.2023. Available at: https://www.lopinion.fr/politique/macron-comment-gouverner-apres-le-49-3?utm_campaign=Edition%20de%207h30_20-03-2023 (accessed 20.03.2023).

24. Julliard J. Au secours, la IV Republiaue revient! Le Figaro, 02.04.2023. Available at: https://www.lefigaro.fr/vox/societe/jacques-julliard-au-secours-la-ive-revient-20230402 (accessed 02.04.2023).


SOURCES

1. En qu(o)i les Français ont-ils confiance aujourd’hui? Baromètre de la confiance politique, Juin 2022, vague 13b. Available at: https://www.sciencespo.fr/cevipof/sites/sciencespo.fr.cevipof/files/OpinionWay%20pour%20le%20CEVIPOF-Barome%CC%80tre%20de%20la%20confiance%20en%20politique%20-%20vague%2013b.pdf (accessed 02.07.2022).

2. Études économiques de l’OCDE: France 2021. Available at: https://books.google.ru/books?id=u3ZPEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=Le+point+sur+les+d%C3%A9penses+sociales+(SOCX)+2020.+Paris,+OCDE,+2020.&source=bl&ots=OljFITuksx&sig=ACfU3U37ALLTwv3PNS0OUxv32KwEU5UlPQ&hl=ru&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwil5rOqyu_-AhUSl4sKHeMNBPs4ChDoAXoECCIQAw#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 02.12.2021).

3. Fractures françaises 2022–10ème edition. Available at: https://www.sciencespo.fr/cevipof/sites/sciencespo.fr.cevipof/files/Ipsos%20-%20Fractures%20Franc%cc%a7aises%20-%20septembre%202022%20.pdf (accessed 07.11.2022).

4. En 2019, le niveau de vie médian augmente nettement et le taux de pauvreté diminue. L’Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. 2021. Available at: https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/5431993 (accessed 13.03.2023).

5. Rapport sur la pauvreté en France, édition 2022–2023. Paris, Observatoire des inégalités, 2023. Available at: https://www.inegalites.fr/Rapport-sur-la-pauvrete-en-France-edition-2022-2023 (accessed 13.01.2023).

6. En qu(o)i les Français ont-ils confiance aujourd’hui? Baromètre de la confiance politique, Février 2023, vague 14. Available at: https://www.sciencespo.fr/cevipof/sites/sciencespo.fr.cevipof/files/Barometre%20de%20la%20confiance%20en%20politique%20-%20vague%2014%20-%20Fevrier%202023%20-%20vFR.pdf%20(1).pdf (accessed 05.03.2023).


For citation:
Lapina N. The Political Process in Modern France: Society and Power. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 37-47. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-8-37-47 EDN: VHUNBZ



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 2

Topical Themes of the Issue:

  • Fiscal Policy of Advanced Economies: Playing by the Rules?  
  • Iranian Development Model: State and Society Concept, Crises and Problems
  • Afghan-Pakistan Relations: Problems and Challenges in XXI Century
  • Climate Issues under Changing Geopolitical Conditions
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.