Diplomacy of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Evolution of Foreign Policy Concepts

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-7-74-84
R. Kurmanguzhin, rustemks@mail.ru
44, Almaty Str., app.14, Almaty, 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan.
A. Chebotarev, aech2004@mail.ru
Centre for Contemporary Research Study “Alternativa”, 163/22 Ayezov Str., Almaty, 050057, Republic of Kazakhstan.

Received 09.02.2023. Revised 18.04.2023. Accepted 03.05.2023.

Abstract. During the thirty years of the country’s independence, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed several foreign policy concepts. The first document, which established the well-known Kazakh multi-vector approach, appeared in 1995. By that time, Kazakhstan had established constructive cooperation not only with the world major actors (Russia, China, US) and international organizations (EU, NATO, OIC), but also with the neighbors in the Central Asian region. In 1995, the Kazakh leadership took action to remove the Soviet nuclear weapons from its territory. All of the above steps demonstrated that Kazakhstan is a reliable and predictable foreign policy partner, as well as a responsible member of the international community. In 2000, 2005 and 2014, the foreign policy concepts were amended. The necessary amendments were prompted both by domestic developments and the situation in the international arena. In 2019, the Foreign Policy Concept 2020–2030 was adopted. This document was not only part of the election program of the President C.- J. C. Tokayev, it was a concept confirming the continuity of the multi-vector and balanced foreign policy of the “new” and “listening” Kazakhstan. Additionally in this document, Kazakhstan openly declared its intention to secure the status of the “leading state in the region”. Therefore, Kazakhstan’s relations with other countries of Central Asia acquired a strategic character. The Republic of Kazakhstan also called for expansion of multilateral dialogue and cooperation in the region, for strengthening the existing formats of interaction between the Central Asian countries and external partners. The current Foreign Policy Concept is not only a guide to action for Kazakhstan itself, but it also sends clear signals to foreign partners regarding the limits of what is acceptable in relations with the Republic of Kazakhstan. This message seems important in today’s turbulent system of international relations, when new pillars of sustainable development are needed not only for individual countries, but for the entire world.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, Foreign Policy Concept, foreign policy priorities, pragmatism, multi-vector foreign policy, “listening state”


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For citation:
Kurmanguzhin R., Chebotarev A. Diplomacy of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Evolution of Foreign Policy Concepts. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 74-84. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-7-74-84 EDN: LBVVDQ

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