The Justice and Development Party and New Turkey

29
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-6-71-81
EDN: WKIRRR
S. Sherstyukov, ssherstyukov@hse.ru
National Research University Higher School of Economics, 17, Malaya Ordynka Str., 119017, Moscow, Russian Federation.
O. Kurnykin, hist-ok@yandex.ru
Altai State University, 61, Lenina Prosp., 656049, Barnaul, Russian Federation.

Received 28.12.2022. Revised 27.02.2023. Accepted 31.03.2023.

Acknowledgements. The research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 22-78-10014).


Abstract. After 2010, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) returned the concept of “New Turkey” to the official political vocabulary. This return took place against the backdrop of such changes in Turkish foreign and domestic policies that gave observers grounds to talk of Erdogan’s “revolution” and compare it with the “revolution” of Ataturk. Although Erdogan’s “New Turkey” is largely thought of as a project significantly opposite to Ataturk’s “New Turkey”, in fact, both these projects are in a complex and confusing relationship with each other. Despite all the differences between them, they intend to make Turkey a member of the club of the leading powers that shape the basic contours of the world order. However, while Ataturk tried to achieve this goal by integrating Turkey to the Western world, Erdogan seeks to make the “New Turkey” one of the centers of the emerging post-Western world order. Despite the ongoing changes in Turkey and the AKP’s narrative of a successful transition from “Old” to “New” Turkey, the model of a new political order, which is seen as post-Kemalist, post-Western and post-Westphalian, is still poorly theorized. The understanding of modernity offered by the AKP is vague, fluid and contains many uncertainties. This article examines the case of Erdogan’s “New Turkey” as an example of finding one’s own path to modernity based on the simultaneous rejection and selective use of the Kemalist legacy.

Keywords: “New Turkey”, R. T. Erdogan, AKP, Westernization, M. K. Ataturk, Kemalism, Colonialism, Post-Western world order


REFERENCES

1. Bora T. Words of Time. The Political Language of the New Turkey. Istanbul, Birikim Kitapları, 2018. 278 p. (In Turk.)

2. Rosati M. The Turkish Laboratory: Local Modernity and the Postsecular in Turkey. Rosati ., Stoeckl ., eds. Multiple modernities and postsecular societies. London and New York, Routledge, 2016, pp. 61-78.

3. Göle N. Manifestations of the Religious-Secular Divide: Self, State, and the Public Sphere. Cady L.E., Hurd E.S., eds. Comparative Secularism in a Global Age. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, pp. 41-53.

4. Kuznetsov V.A. New Framework for Political Reality. The Middle Eastern Case. Oriental Courier, 2020, no. 3–4, pp. 27-43. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.18254/S268684310012374-9 

5. Coşkun B., Doğan S., Demir M. Foreign Policy as a Legitimation Strategy for AKP’s Hegemonic Project of the “New Turkey”. Baser ., Öztürk A.E., eds. Authoritarian Politics in Turkey: Elections, Resistance and the AKP. London, IB Tauris, 2017, pp. 83-98.

6. Atabaki T., Zürcher E.J., eds. Men of Order: Authoritarian Modernization under Atatürk and Reza Shah. London and New York, IB Tauris, 2004. 281 p.

7. Çandar C. A New Turkey? Implications of the Failed Military Coup and Subsequent Political Coup. Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 2016, no. 8, pp. 102-117.

8. Christofis N., ed. Erdogan’s ‘New’ Turkey: Attempted Coup D’état and the Acceleration of Political Crisis. London, Routledge, 2020. 234 p.

9. Alaranta T. National and State Identity in Turkey: The Transformation of the Republic’s Status in the International System. New York, London, Rowman and Littlefield, 2015. 181 p.

10. Nadein-Raevskii V.A. Ideological Struggle and a New Turkey. MGIMO Review on International Relations, 2016, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 22-31. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.24833/2071-8160-2016-2-47-22-31 

11. Akyol M. What exactly is the ‘New Turkey’? Al-Monitor, 26.08.2014. Available at: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2014/08/turkey-erdogan-new-turkey-religious-conservatives.html (accessed 04.11.2022).

12. Cindoglu D., Unal D. Gender and Sexuality in the Authoritarian Discursive Strategies of ‘New Turkey’. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 2017, vol. 24 (1), pp. 39-54. DOI: 10.1177/1350506816679003

13. Aydıntaşbaş A. The Turkish Sonderweg: Erdogan’s New Turkey and Its Role in the Global Order. Istanbul, Istanbul Policy Center, 2020. 16 p.

14. Aydin M. Determinants of Turkish Foreign Policy: Historical Framework and Traditional Inputs. Middle Eastern Studies, 1999, vol. 35 (4), pp. 152-186.

15. Yavuz M.H. Nostalgia for the Empire: Politics of Neo-Ottomanism. New York, Oxford University Press, 2020. 336 p.

16. Uzer U. Conservative Narrative: Contemporary Neo-Ottomanist Approaches in Turkish Politics. Middle East Critique, 2020, vol. 29 (3), pp. 275-290. DOI: 10.1080/19436149.2020.1770444

17. Ihsan Y. Creating the Desired Citizen: Ideology, State, and Islam in Turkey. New York, NY, Cambridge University Press, 2021. 250 p.

18. Kısakürek N.F. The Ideological Pathway. Istanbul, Büyük Doğu, 1997. 576 p. (In Turk.)

19. Çapan Z.G., Zarakol A. Postcolonial Colonialism? The Case of Turkey. Epstein C., ed. Against International Relations Norms Postcolonial Perspectives. London and New York, Routledge, 2017, pp. 193-210.

20. Öktem K. Ruling Ideologies in Modern Turkey. Tezcür G., ed. Oxford Handbook of Turkish Politics. London, New York, Oxford University Press, 2020, pp. 53-74.

21. Christofis N. The AKP’s “Yeni Turkiye”: Challenging the Kemalist Narrative? Mediterranean Quarterly, 2018, vol. 29 (3), pp. 11-32. DOI: 10.1215/10474552-7003144

22. Kandiyoti D., Emanet Z. Education as Battleground: The Capture of Minds in Turkey. Globalizations, 2017, vol. 14 (6), pp. 869-876. DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2017.1325170

23. Taşkın Y. Populism in Turkey: Historical and Contemporary Patterns. Tezcür G. M., ed. The Oxford Handbook of Turkish Politics. New York, Oxford University Press, 2020, pp. 278-293.

24. Koru S. The Institutional Structure of “New Turkey”. Foreign Policy Research Institute, 2021, pp. 1-47.

25. Candar C. Has Erdogan Achieved His Goal to Build His ‘New Turkey’? Al-Monitor, 16.07.2021. Available at: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2021/07/has-erdogan-achieved-his-goal-build-his-new-turkey (accessed 05.11.2022).

26. Aslan A. Problematizing Modernity in Turkish Foreign Policy: Identity, Sovereignty and Beyond. Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika, 2013, vol. 9 (33), pp. 27-57.

27. Nebi M., Aslan A. Erdogan’s Politics and His Presidential Mission. SETA Analysis, 2014, no. 12, pp. 1-33.

28. Yeşiltaş M. Turkey’s Quest for a “New International Order”: The Discourse of Civilization and the Politics of Restoration. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 2014, no. 19 (4), pp. 43-76.

29. Cagaptay S. Kemal Erdoğan’s Second Turkish Revolution. Politico, 27.01.2016. Available at: https://www.politico.eu/article/turkeys-erdogan-revolution (accessed 05.11.2022).

30. Shlykov P.V. Turkey’s Foreign Policy in the Post-Bipolar System of Coordinates. Journal of International Analytics, 2021, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 130-152. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.46272/2587-8476-2021-12-2-130-152 

31. Alaranta T. Turkey’s Foreign Policy Narratives. Implications of Global Power Shifts. Springer, 2022. 184 p.

32. Huntington S.P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1996. 367 p.

33. Birol B., Taşpınar Ö. The Nation or the Ummah. Islamism and Turkish Foreign Policy. Albany, SUNY Press, 2021. 222 p.

34. Müftüler-Baç M. Turkey’s Grand Strategy in the Context of Global and Regional Challenges. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, 2020, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 178-202.

35. Duran B. Which New Turkey? Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Toplum Araştırmaları Vakfı, 04.09.2022. (In Turk.) Available at: https://www.setav.org/hangi-yeni-turkiye/ (accessed 24.02.2023).

36. Kutlay M., Öniş Z. Turkish Foreign Policy in a Post-Western Order: Strategic Autonomy or New Forms of Dependence? International Affairs, 2021, vol. 97 (4), pp. 1085-1104. DOI: 10.1093/ia/iiab094 


SOURCES

1. President Erdogan’s “New Turkey”: What does it Mean? Institute for Security & Development Policy, 19.09.2014. Available at: https://isdp.eu/event/president-erdogans-new-turkey-mean/ (accessed 04.11.2022).

2. New Turkey Declaration 2023. Sözcü Gazetesi, 25.04.2015. (In Turk.) Available at: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/gundem/yeni-turkiye-sozlesmesi-2023-804711/ (accessed 04.11.2022).

3. Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, Moscow. F. Referent for Turkey, Inventory 8/a, File 60. (In Russ.) 

4. Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, Moscow. F. Referent for Turkey, Inventory 8/a, File 59. (In Russ.)

5. “The Nation Creates the Greatest Power in Our Struggle for the New Turkey”. T.C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 29.10.2016. (In Turk.) Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/55827/yeni-turkiye-yolunda-verdigimiz-mucadelede-en-buyuk-gucu-millet-olusturuyor (accessed 05.11.2022).

6. Turkey’s first Postcolonial Studies Application and Research Center was established at Üsküdar University. T.C. Üsküdar Üniversitesi, 24.09.2014. (In Turk.) Available at: https://uskudar.edu.tr/tr/icerik/615/turkiyenin-ilk-postkolonyal-calismalar-uygulama-ve-arastirma-merkezi-uskudar-universitesinde-kuruldu (accessed 29.11.2022).

7. PAMER (Postcolonial Studies Application and Research Center) – Director’s Message. T.C. Üsküdar Üniversitesi. (In Turk.) Available at: https://uskudar.edu.tr/tr/postkolonyal-calismalar-uygulama-ve-arastirma-merkezi-pamer-mudurun-mesaji (accessed 29.11.2022).

8. “Our Longing for a New Turkey is the Spirit of the Turkey of April 23, 1920, as Gazi Mustafa Kemal meant it” T.C. Cumhurbaşkanlığı, 10.10.2014. (In Turk.) Available at: https://www.tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/1494/bizim-yeni-turkiye-ozlemimiz-gazi-mustafa-kemalin-kastettigi-gibi-23-nisan-1920-turkiyesinin-ruhudur (accessed 05.11.2022).


For citation:
Sherstyukov S., Kurnykin O. The Justice and Development Party and New Turkey . World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 71-81. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-6-71-81 EDN: WKIRRR



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.