The Diaspora Factor in the Context of Pan-Armenian Identity: between Nation and State

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-4-92-108
Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, 123, H. Emin Str., Yerevan, 0051, Republic of Armenia.
Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, 123, H. Emin Str., Yerevan, 0051, Republic of Armenia.

Received 13.07.2022. Revised 19.10.2022. Accepted 30.01.2023.

Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the RA Science Committee and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RF) in the frames of the joint research project SCS 20RF‑182 and RFBR 20-511-05025 accordingly.

Abstract. Research on the Armenian diaspora take a special place in the modern Armenian studies. Approximately 70 per cent of ethnic Armenians live outside the modern Republic of Armenia. Preservation of the Armenian identity within the diaspora is declared as a priority objective. At the same time, the diaspora is perceived as a strategic resource for the development of the Armenian statehood. Meanwhile, there is practically no comprehensive research on this topic. Accordingly, certain myths exist about a unified Armenian diaspora, however, in reality it is more accurate to refer to it as a plethora of Armenian communities in different countries of the world that vary in many ways and are rather fragmented due to their lack of institutionalized unity. This article aims to study the communities of the Armenian diaspora in all their diversity with the objective to reveal the socio-political portrait of these communities. The analysis especially focuses on the institutions within the Armenian diaspora in order to identify their role in the functioning of these communities in general and the preservation of Armenian identity in particular. The main aim is to comprehend the unity between the Republic of Armenia and the Armenian diaspora through examining the place and role of modern Armenian statehood in the models of self-identification of diaspora communities. To this end, the authors study the available literature on the topic, as well as specific empirical material, namely in-depth interviews with experts in the Republic of Armenia and the results of an extensive sociological poll “The Armenian Diaspora Survey” conducted across various communities of the Armenian diaspora. The study concludes that there is a common cultural and linguistic Armenian identity, which does not extend to include civil, political, and – currently – confessional components.

Keywords: Armenian diaspora, national identity, ethno-cultural community, Armenian communities, Armenian statehood, diaspora transnationalism, exiled nationalism, Armenian church


1. Sarkisyan H.L., Dunamalyan N.A., Karamyan I.A., Oganesyan T.A. Civic identity in Armenia (overview of in-depth expert survey). Vestnik RAU, 2021, no. 2 (38), pp. 7-18. (In Russ.). Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

2. Tölölyan K. The contemporary discourse of diaspora studies. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 2007, vol. 27, iss. 3, pp. 647-655. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

3. Abrahamyan L. Armenia and diaspora: divergence and meeting. 21st century, 2005, no. 2, pp. 137-155. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

4. Brubaker R. Accidental Diasporas and External “Homelands” in Central and Eastern Europe: Past and Present. IHS Political Science Series 71. October 2000. 30 p. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

5. Cohen R. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York, Routledge, 2008. 240 p. Available at: 

6. Panossian R. The Armenians: Conflicting Identities and the Politics of Division. Nations Abroad. Diaspora Politics and International Relations in the Former Soviet Union. King Ch., ed. New York, Routledge, 1998. Ch. 4. Available at: 

7. Malkhasyan M. Historical-demographic research. Collection of scientific articles, book 1. Yerevan, YSU press, 2015. 248 p. (In Armen.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

8. Malkhasyan M. Armenians in the world. Armenian Diaspora Encyclopedia. Yerevan, 2003. 735 p. (In Armen.)

9. Iskandaryan G. The Armenian community in Iran: Issues and emigration. Global Campus Human Rights Journal, 2019, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 127-140. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

10. Harutyunyan Yu.V. On the ethno-sociological studies of Armenians in Russia. Historical and Philological Journal, 2010, no. 1, pp. 129-136. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

11. Tishkov V.A. Requiem for an ethnos: studies in socio-cultural anthropology. Moscow, Nauka, 2003. 544 p. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

12. Takooshian H. Armenian Immigration to the United States from the Middle East. Journal of Armenian Studies, 1986–1987, vol. III, no. 1-2: Identity and Assimilation: The Armenian Experience in America, pp. 133-155. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

13. Sargsyan H.L. Cultural resource of identity policy (on the example of Armenia). Vestnik RAU, 2018, no. 2 (29), pp. 28-33. (In Russ.)

14. Simavoryan A., Hovyan V. Armenian Catholic and Evangelical communities in Turkey. Modern trends. Yerevan, “Noravank” GKH, 2012. 160 p. (In Armen.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

15. Tölölyan K. The Role of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the Diaspora. The Armenian Review, 1988, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 55-68. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

16. Merton R. Social Structure and Anomie. American Sociological Review, 1938, no. 3, vol. 5, pp. 672-682. Available at: 

17. Dyatlov V., Melkonyan E. Armenian Diaspora: essays on socio-cultural typology. Iskandaryan A., ed. Yerevan, Caucasus Institute, 2009. 207 p. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

18. Gevorkyan A.V. Development and diversity: “old” and “new” Armenian Diasporas at the present stage. Working papers. Caucasus Institute, Yerevan. May 2017. 19 p. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

19. Hakobyan A.A. The problem of Republic of Armenia and Diaspora interaction concept formation in the context of Armenian strategic culture development. Vestnik RAU, 2018, no. 3 (30), pp. 121-131. (In Russ.)

20. Brinkerhoff J.M. Diaspora policy in weakly governed arenas and the benefits of multipolar engagement: lessons from the Coptic Orthodox Church in Egypt. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2019, vol. 45, iss. 4, pp. 561-576. Available at: 

21. Armstrong J.A. Mobilized and Proletarian Diasporas. The American Political Science Review, 1976, no. 70 (2), pp. 393-408. Available at: 

22. Rafik F. How the Armenian Community Made Egypt a Home. Egyptian streets, 08.06.2022. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

23. Tölölyan K. Beyond the homeland: From exilic nationalism to diasporic transnationalism. Gal A., Leoussi A.S., Smith A.D., eds. The Call of the Homeland. 2010, pp. 27-45. Available at:  

24. Fittante D. Connection without Engagement: The Paradoxes of North American Armenian Return Migration. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 2017, vol. 19, iss. 2–3, pp. 147-169. Available at:

25. Karageozian N. Dreaming of the Mountain, Longing for the Sea, Living with Floating Roots: Diasporic ‘Return’ Migration in Post-Soviet Armenia. Sigona N., Gamlen A., Liberatore G., Kringelbach H.N., eds. Diasporas Reimagined: Spaces, Practices and Belonging. Oxford, Oxford Diasporas Programme, 2015, pp. 69-73. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

26. Tölölyan K. The Armenian Diaspora and the Karabagh Conflict since 1988. Smith H., Stares P., eds. Diasporas in Conflict: Peace Makers or Peace Wreckers? Tokyo, New York, United Nations University Press, 2007, pp. 106-128. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

27. Minasyan E., eds. Homeland-Diaspora relations. From 1918 to the present day. Yerevan, YSU publishing house, 2017. 246 p. (In Armen.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

28. Simavoryan A., Hovyan V. Homeland-diaspora cooperation models. Yerevan, “Noravank” GKH, 2018. 134 p. (In Armen.)

29. Dunamalyan N.A. Institutional foundations of Armenian cultural diplomacy. Vestnik RAU (series: humanities and social sciences), 2018, no. 2 (29), pp. 34-37. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).


1. Armenian Diaspora Opinion. Armenian Institute London Armenian Diaspora Survey. Pilot Project 2018. Tchilingirian H., ed. 152 p. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

2. Population as of 01.03.2001 by region and ethnic groups. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

3. Armenian Diaspora Public Opinion (1). Armenian Diaspora Survey 2019. Tchilingirian H., ed. 176 p. Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

4. Russian Armenians. Ethno-sociological research. Yerevan, Gitutyun publishing, 2016. 306 p. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 25.09.2022).

For citation:
Sargsyan H., Dunamalyan N. The Diaspora Factor in the Context of Pan-Armenian Identity: between Nation and State. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 92-108. EDN: QQUKAY

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.