Spanish Society: Stable Instability

49
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-3-44-54
EDN: NGXWFG
Moscow State Institute of International Relations, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation (MGIMO University), 76, Vernadskogo Prosp., Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation;
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAS), 51/21, Nakhimovskii Prosp., Moscow, 117418, Russian Federation.

Received 27.11.2022. Revised 09.12.2022. Accepted 26.12.2022.

Abstract. Instability has become a “new normal” for Spain. This relatively young democracy with numerous semiperipheral traits is seeing new challenges overlap the long-standing old ones, which makes instability greater than in more developed European Union countries. The article is the first Russian academic paper to cover the entirety of destabilizing factors in contemporary Spanish society. Among the destabilizers one can identify those that may be traced back to Spain’s historical past. These include polarization of opinions on the legacy of the Civil War and the Franco regime, elements of authoritarian attitudes in mass consciousness and political practices of organizations, as well as conflicts between supporters of monarchy and the republican movement, between avid catholics and secularists. Another contributing factor is fragility of the political system that shows itself in personalist (caudillist) parties, whose mechanisms for intra-party democracy are still immature. There is also a disproportionate electoral legislation, politicized judiciary, and the unfinished nation state that has failed to truly integrate Catalonia and the Basque Country. Another destabilizer is volatile social and economic development. Spain has one of the highest rates of unemployment and precarious employment in the EU, intensive growth of precariat, flawed healthcare and education systems, immigration galvanizing both indigenous nationalism and xenophobia, with the reluctance of many immigrants to adapt to Spanish culture and society. Minimizing risks related to destabilizing factors is an imperative for Spain’s present and future.

Keywords: Spain, built-in destabilizers, political parties, electoral system, judiciary, unfinished nation state, unemployment, precarious employment


REFERENCES

1. Khenkin S.M. Spanish Party and Political System: time for a test. Politeia, 2020, no. 2, pp. 182-191. (In Russ.) Available at: http://politeia.ru/files/articles/rus/Politeia-2020-2(97)-182-191.pdf (accessed 15.07.2022).

2. Khenkin S.M. Spain: Controversy around Historical Memory. Outlines of Global Transformations: Politics. Economics. Law, 2019, no. 4, pp. 72-87. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.ogt-journal.com/jour/article/view/503/437 (accessed 15.07.2022).

3. Khenkin S. Spain in Zone of Turbulence. World economy and international relations, 2012, no. 4, pp. 71-80. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2012-4-71-81 

4. Khenkin S.M. New Forms of Employment and New Social Groups: Projection into Politics. (Case of Spain). Politeia, 2022, no. 3, pp. 179-196. (In Russ.) Available at: http://politeia.ru/files/articles/rus/Politeia-2022-3(106)-Pages-001-202-179-196.pdf (accessed 15.10.2022).

5. Messuti A., ed. onstruyendo memorias entre generaciones: Tender puentes, buscar verdades, reclamar justicia. Madrid, Postmetropolis Editorial, 2019. 226 p.

6. Lopez B. Las propuestas de los partidos para el 28-A: memoria histórica. El Periódico, 15.04.2019. Available at: https://www.elperiodico.com/es/politica/20190415/las-propuestas-de-los-partidos-para-el-28-a-memoria-historica-7409075 (accessed 20.09.2022).

7. Jauregui F., Menendez M.A, eds. La España que necesitamos. Del 20 N a 2020. Madrid, Almuzara S.A., 2011. 808 p.

8. Casqueiro J. Podemos registra una nueva comisión de investigación en el Congreso sobre irregularidades del rey emérito. El País, 05.03.2021. Available at: https://elpais.com/espana/2021-03-05/unidas-podemos-registra-una-nueva-comision-de-investigacion-en-el-congreso-sobre-el-rey-emerito.html (accessed 15.10.2022).

9. Aguilar S. La jerarquía católica española en perspectiva comparada. La confrontación política entre la Iglesia y el Gobierno socialista a comienzos del siglo I. Revista Internacional de Sociología, 2013, no. 2, pp. 309-334. Available at: https://www.ugr.es/~fjjrios/pce/media/4r-JerarquiaCatolicaEspanola.pdf (accessed 15.10.2022).

10. Sevilla J. La España herida. Las 6 brechas sociales y cómo corregirlas. Barcelona, Deusto, 2022. 349 p.

11. Martinez A., ed. Representación y calidad de la democracia en España. Madrid, Tecnos, 2006. 309 p.

12. Camuñas Solis I., ed. España. El final de una época. Madrid, Libroslibres, 2009. 268 p.

13. Montabes J., Martinez A., eds. Gobierno y política en España. Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch, 2019. 809 p.

14. Fernandez-Viagas J.F. Diez razones para ser de izquierdas…a pesar de la Izquierda. Madrid, Almuzara, 2019. 205 p.

15. Leguina J. Los 10 mitos del nacionalismo catalán. Barcelona, Planeta S. A., 2014. 224 p.

16. Maiz R. Las razones del federalismo. El País, 17.10.2012. Available at: https://elpais.com/elpais/2012/10/08/opinion/1349692622_661786.html (accessed 10.10.2022).

17. Vidal-Folch . Cataluña ante España. Madrid, atarata, 2014. 144 p.

18. Huarte P. Un 40% de los ciudadanos vascos está en contra de la independencia. The Objective, 21.10.2022. Available at: https://theobjective.com/espana/2022-10-21/pais-vasco-independencia/ (accessed 12.11.2022).

19. Yakovlev P.P. Economics and challenges of funding the post-COVID growth model. Spain: a difficult choice in an uncertainty. Moscow, ILA RAN, 2022, pp. 62-82. (In Russ.)

20. Cristóbal Torres A., ed. España 2015. Situación social. Madrid, Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 2015. 1740 p.

21. Artal R.M. Salmones contra percebes. Como ganar la partida a quienes rechazan cambios políticos y sociales. Madrid, Temas de hoy, 2013. 224 p.

22. Rodrigues O. España cierra 2020 con un paro juvenil del 40%. El Independiente, 28.01.2021. Available at: https://www.elindependiente.com/economia/2021/01/28/espana-cierra-2020-con-un-paro-juvenil-del-40/ (accessed 08.09.2022).

23. Ermolyeva E.G. Education reform in the focus of political debate and social confrontation. A Global World: Toward New Models of National and Regional Development. Vol. II. Moscow, IMEMO, 2014, pp. 265-270. (In Russ.)

24. Khenkin S. Spain: modern trends of mass protest. World economy and international relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 73-82. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-9-73-82


SOURCES

1. BOE. Legislación consolidada. Ley 20/2022, 19 de octubre, de Memoria Democratica. Available at: https://www.boe.es/buscar/pdf/2022/BOE-A-2022-17099-consolidado.pdf (accessed 08.11.2022).

2. 2019 YIII Informe sobre exclusión y desarollo social en España. Madrid, Fundación Foessa, 2019. 594 p. Available at: http://www.plataformatercersector.es/sites/default/files/20190612%20VIII%20Informe-FOESSA-2019-completo.pdf (accessed 11.10.2022).

3. Resolver las deficiencias de nuestro mercado de trabajo y adaptarlo a las nuevas realidades sociales, económicas y tecnológicas. Available at: https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/presidente/actividades/Documents/2021/200521-Estrategia_Espana_2050_7.pdf (accessed 10.09.2022).


For citation:
Khenkin S. Spanish Society: Stable Instability. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2023, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 44-54. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2023-67-3-44-54 EDN: NGXWFG



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.