Received 06.09.2021. Revised 02.08.2022. Accepted 03.11.2022.
Abstract. The expansion of terrorism in the Middle East in the context of the Arab Spring has become a factor of unprecedented military-political rapprochement between Iran and Russia. This article studies the anti-terrorist cooperation between the two states. The author argues that the new level of cooperation between Tehran and Moscow is a consequence of structural conditions of the international environment, which has come under pressure of international terrorism. To combat terrorism, Iran and Russia are trying to use instruments of not only “hard” but also “soft” power by creating platforms for intercultural and interreligious dialogue. In this regard, the legal foundations of anti-terrorist cooperation between Iran and Russia, its forms and levels are explored. The paper also assesses the possibilities and prospects of cooperation between the two states in the fight against terrorism. The author predicts functional and geographical expansion of the interaction of the two sides in the context of their anti-terrorist strategy. In this context, Central Asia, a significant channel of trafficking of Afghan opiates, and the radical ideology of jihadists, is identified as an important vector of cooperation. The author notes that if Iran intensifies its participation within SCO and CSTO, the potential of these institutions in the fight against non-traditional threats will increase and possibilities of joint participation of Iran and Russia in the settlement of the Afghan conflict will expand. An increase in cooperation between Tehran and Moscow in the field of cyber terrorism is expected against the background of the signing of an agreement between the two states on ensuring information security. The article concludes that the threat of terrorism to the security of Iran and Russia creates many options for joint fight against this destructive phenomenon, but the use of those opportunities remains limited.
Keywords: international terrorism, Iranian-Russian relations, Syrian conflict, the Middle East, religious extremism
1. Veselovskii S.S. Multilateral Cooperation in the Fight Against Transnational Terrorism. Moscow, Navona, 2009. 272 p. (In Russ.)
2. Kiras D. James. Terrorism and globalization. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. Baylis J., Smith S., Owens P., eds. 8th ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019. 648 p.
3. Jabbarinasir H.R. The Influence of Modern International Terrorism on the Main Megatrends of Modern World Politics. Science Journal of Volgograd State University. History. Area Studies. International Relations, 2021, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 22-33. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.15688/jvolsu4.2021.3.3
4. Jabbarinasir H.R. Factors of Transformation of Political Islam in World Politics: Origins of Violence and Terrorism. Politeia, 2021, no. 3 (102), pp. 125-146. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2021-102-3-125-146
5. Lebedeva M.M. System of Political Organization of the World: “Perfect Storm”. Bulletin of MGIMO-University, 2016, no. 2 (47), pp. 125-133. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.24833/2071-8160-2016-2-47-134-144
6. Zvyagel’skaya I.D., Svistunova I.A., Surkov N.Y. The Middle East at a Time of “Negative Certainty”. World Economy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 94-103. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-6-94-103
7. Morgentau H. International Politics. Anthology of World Political Thought: in Three Volumes. Vol. 2. Moscow, Mysl’, 1997. 765 p. (In Russ.)
8. Waltz N. Kenneth. Structural Realism after the Cold War. International Security, 2000, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 5-41.
9. Jabbarinasir H.R. Iran and Israel in the Foreign Policy of Russia: Restrictions on the Way of Cooperation. Comparative Politics Russia, 2020, no. 11 (1), pp. 44-64. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.24411/2221-3279-2020-10004
10. Keohane R., Nye J. Power and Interdependence. World Politics in Transition. Boston, Little Brown, 1977. 300 p.
11. Jabbarinasir H., Bahriev B.Kh. Iran’s Contemporary Anti-Terrorism Approach: “Hard” and “Soft” Elements. Bulletin of RUDN. International Relations, 2018, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 823-836. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.22363/2313-0660-2018-18-4-823-836
12. Ivanov S.M. Resolution of the Syrian Conflict Is an Important Step on the Way to Regional Stability. World Eñonomy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 53-61. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-11-53-61
13. Ivanov I.S., ed. Partnership Between Russia and Iran: Current State and Development Prospects. Report no. 29/2017. Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC). Moscow, 2017. 184 p. (In Russ.) Available at: https://russiancouncil.ru/common/upload/RIAC-IRAS-Russia-Iran-Report29.pdf (accessed 27.10.2022).
14. Druzhilovskii S.B. Russian-Iranian Relations After the Creation of the Islamic Republic of Iran (report at the conference). Russian-Iranian relations. Problems and Prospects. Dunaeva E.V., Sazhin V.I., eds. Moscow, IV RAN, 2015. 260 p. (In Russ.)
15. Ghauor A., Netagpour M. Regional Factors Affecting the Convergence of Iran and Russia and Its Effect on the National Security of the Islamic Republic of Iran. “Defense Policy” scientific journal, 2013, no 83, pp. 167-201. (In Pers.)
16. Sahraiyan M. Parts of the Findings of Money Laundering Research in Iran. Parliament and Research, 2004, no. 37, pp. 337-368. (In Pers.)
17. Jabbarinasir H. Approaches of Russia and Iran to the Fight Against International Terrorism. Dissertation, Candidate sciences (Politics): 23.00.04. MGIMO MFA of Russia. Moscow, 2018. (In Russ.)
18. Ivanov S.M. At the Forefront of the Fight Against Drug Trafficking. Nezavisimoe voennoe obozrenie, 14.12.2012. (In Russ.) Available at: http://nvo.ng.ru/gpolit/2012-12-14/1_narkotrafik.html (accessed 25.07.2022).
19. Karmi J. Relations between Iran and Russia in the years 1989 to 2009: platforms, factors and limitations. Central Eurasia Studies, 1389, no. 6, pp. 111-136. (In Pers.)
20. Cunningham E. While the U.S. wasn’t looking, Russia and Iran began carving out a bigger role in Afghanistan. The Washington Post, 11.04.2017. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/with-uspolicy-in-flux-russia-and-iran-challenge-american-power-in-afghanistan/2017/04/12/f8c768bc-1eb8-11e7-bb59-a74ccaf1d02f_story.html (accessed 28.07.2022).
21. Mohammadian M. Consequences of Russia’s Intervention in Syria for the Interests of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Abrar Institute of International Studies and Research, Tehran, 08.12.2015. (In Pers.) Available at: http://www.tisri.org/default‑2017.aspx (accessed 27.07.2022).
22. Sidorov I. Cooperation Between Russia and Iran in the Fight Against International Terrorism. Internet Journal “Military-political analytics”, 16.07.2018. (In Russ.) Available at: https://vpoanalytics.com/2018/07/16/sotrudnichestvo-rossii-i-irana-v-sfere-borby-s-mezhdunarodnym-terrorizmom/ (accessed 27.07.2022).
23. Machitidze G.G. Iran’s Fight Against International Terrorism. Bulletin of MGIMO-University, 2020, no. 13 (5), pp. 252-265. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.24833/2071-8160-2020-5-74-252-265
24. Melnik S.V. Joint Russian-Iranian Commission on the Dialogue “Orthodoxy-Islam”: History and Basic Principles of Interreligious Cooperation. Russia and the Muslim World, 2022, no. 1 (323), pp. 95-108. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.31249/rimm/2022.01.10
25. Krasheninnikova E.A. Religious diplomacy in the settlement of the Afghan conflict: opportunities and limitations. Bulletin of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Series: International Relations, 2019, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 533-544. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.22363/2313-0660-2019-19-4-533-544
26. Usmonov F. Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Russian Approach to Iran’s Candidacy. Central Asia and the Caucasus, 2014, vol. 17, no. 3, cc. 18-31. (In Russ.)
27. Bakhriev B.Kh., Rustamova L.R. Soft Power of a Military Organization: NATO’s Public Diplomacy in Central Asia. Tomsk State University Bulletin, 2020, no. 458, pp. 90-100. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17223/15617793/458/11
1. Global Terrorism Index 2020. Institute for Economics & Peace. November 2020. Available at: https://www.economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/GTI-2022-web-09062022.pdf (accessed 29.07.2022).
2. Global Terrorism Index 2022. Institute for Economics & Peace. March 2022. Available at: https://www.economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GTI-2020-web-2.pdf (accessed 29.07.2022).
3. The Agreement on Principles of Relations and Principles of Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Kremlin, 12.04.2001. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/supplement/3290 (accessed 17.07.2022).
4. Russia and Iran signed an agreement on military cooperation. RBC, 20.01.2015. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/54be211a9a79472841487bbb (accessed 11.07.2022).
5. Emerging Terrorist Financing Risks. FATF, October 2015. Available at: https://www.fatf-gafi.org/media/fatf/documents/reports/Emerging-Terrorist-Financing-Risks.pdf (accessed 14.07.2022).
6. Mikhailov V. Iranian Vector of CSTO Expansion: You Want a Nuclear Umbrella? Become an Ally. EurAsia Daily, 20.02.2022. (In Russ.) Available at: https://eadaily.com/ru/news/2022/02/20/iranskiy-vektor-rasshireniya-odkb-hotite-yadernyy-zontik-stanovites-soyuznikom (accessed 27.07.2022).