National Development Policies in the Face of Global Challenges: the Irish Pendulum

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-7-81-93
I. Semenenko,
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 18.03.2022. Revised 12.04. 2022. Accepted 21.04.2022.

Abstract. Divided societies project new cleavages into the contemporary divided world. Assessing cleavages as drivers of social change and evaluating their positive potential versus evident negative impacts is a key element in forecasting prospects of social development. The paper addresses social and economic statistical data, opinion polls and academic research input of the past decade to prove the need to balance tradition and innovation and combine tangible and intangible assets to support the progress of national and local communities. The trend to reduce social inequalities is an important criterion for evaluating the strategic consistency of such policies, whereas the main contextual factor important for their success is the dynamics of support for these policies and the engagement of citizens and communities in their implementation. The example of Ireland as a society that has managed to integrate divisions of the nation and of its historic territory into its development strategies and to promote past cultural traumas as drivers of social cohesion with a long-lasting effect is a representative case in this sense. This case is relevant for explaining the pendulum effects of economic development that can be compensated by consistent social policies, and by recurring to intangible cultural resources and diaspora support to promote an inclusive national identity. Ongoing deep transformations of the existing world order are creating new political spaces, and recourse to intangible resources of development may stimulate a reevaluation of the current conflictual political agenda.

Keywords: divided societies, social inequalities, cultural traditions, policy innovations, immigration, diaspora, politics of memory, inclusive national identity, development policy, Ireland


1. Mijs J.B. The Paradox of Inequality: Income Inequality and Belief in Meritocracy Go Hand in Hand. Socio-Economic Review, 2021, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7-35. DOI: 10.1093/ser/mwy051

2. Flaherty T., Rogowski R. Rising Inequality as a Threat to the Liberal International Order. International Organization, 2021, vol. 75, special iss. 2, pp. 495-523. DOI: 10.1017/S0020818321000163

3. Wimmer A. Nation Building. Why Some Countries Come Together While Others Fall Apart. Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2018. 345 p. DOI: 10.2307/j.ctvc77kjx

4. Steckermeier L.C., Delhey J. Better for Everyone? Egalitarian Culture and Social Wellbeing in Europe. Social Indicators Research, 2019, no. 143, pp. 1075-1108. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-018-2007-z

5. Dynkin A., ed. World 2035. Global Forecast. Moscow, Magistr Publishers, 2017. 352 p. (In Russ.)

6. Semenenko I.S. Rethinking Development in Social Sciences: on the Threshold of an Ethical Turn. Polis. Political Studies, 2021, no. 2, pp. 25-45. (In Russ.) DOI:

7. Hickel J. The World’s Sustainable Development Goals Aren’t Sustainable. Foreign Policy, 30.09.2020. Available at: (accessed 12.04.2022).

8. Yanitsky O.N. Globalization. City. Person. Moscow, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 177 p. (In Russ.).

9. Semenenko I.S. Horizons of Responsible Development: from Discourse to Governance. Polis. Political Studies, 2019, no. 3, pp. 7-26. (In Russ.) DOI:

10. Polyakova E.Yu. History of Ireland in Contemporary Research. English studies in modern Russia. Aizenshtat M P., Labutina T.L., eds. Moscow, IVI RAN, 2019, . 376-386. (In Russ.)

11. The end of Irish history? Critical reflections on the Celtic Tiger. Coulter C., Coleman S., eds. Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 2003. 212 p.

12. Orlova M.E. Reflections on Ireland on the Brink of a Crisis. Politiya, 2010, no. 1 (56), pp. 182-189. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2010-56-1-182-189

13. Orlova M.E. The Experience of the Economic Modernization of Ireland. Politiya, 2010, no. 3 (58–59), pp. 75-86. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.30570/2078-5089-2010-5859-3-75-86

14. McGreevy R. Irish People take issue with topping “Good Country Index”. The Irish Times, 25.06.2014.

15. Keohane K., Kuhling C. The Domestic, Moral and Political Economies of Post-Celtic Tiger Ireland: What Rough Beast? Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 2014. 209 p.

16. Coffey S. Why has income inequality fallen in Ireland? Cork University Business School. News, 19.11.2020. Available at: (accessed 10.02.2022).

17. Hilliard B., Nic Ghiolla Phádraig M., eds. Changing Ireland in International Comparison. Dublin, Liffey Press, 2007. 245 p.

18. Reynolds D. Family values: we still cling to tradition., 11.03.2015. Available at: (accessed 12.02.2022).

19. Duncan P. 93% of Irish parents baptize their kids but just 35% pray with them. The Irish Times, 24.03.2015. Available at: (accessed 12.02.2022).

20. Ganiel G. Transforming Post-Catholic Ireland: Religious Practice in Late Modernity. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016. 285 p.

21. Canavan J. Family and Family Change in Ireland: An Overview. Journal of Family Issues, 2012, iss. 33 (1), pp. 10-28. DOI: 10.1177/0192513X11420956

22. Kenny K. The Irish Diaspora. Aeon, 07.09.2017. Available at: (accessed 15.02.2022).

23. Kryuchkova A.A. Main Migration Trends in Ireland at the End of XX – the Beginning of the XXI Century. Human Capital, 2019, no. 7 (127), pp. 11-17. (In Russ.)

24. Shchedrin A., Trofimova O. Contemporary migration processes in Ireland. World Economy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 71-79. (In Russ.) Available at:

25. Perry . The Tribe: The Inside Story of Irish Power and Influence in US Politics. Dublin, Gill Books, 2019. 272 p.

26. White T.J., Pausa E.M. When Did the Irish American Diaspora Make a Difference? Influencing US Diplomacy towards Northern Ireland. Studi Irlandesi. A Journal of Irish Studies, 2019, no. 9, pp. 329-346. DOI: 10.13128/SIJIS‑2239-3978-25520

27. Ananieva E.V. Trump’s Reaction to Brexit. The Trump Phenomenon. Kuznetsov A.V., ed. Moscow, INION RAN, 2020, pp. 483-496. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.31249/phtr/2020.00.00

28. Doyle K. New website will sell our country to the world – Taoiseach., 16.03.2017. Available at: (accessed 15.02.2022).

29. Billig M. Banal Nationalism. London, SAGE Publications Ltd., 1995. 200 p. DOI: 10.4135/9781446221648

30. Lapa D. St Patrick, Apostle of Ireland and Wonderworker., 30.03.2020. Available at: (accessed 20.02.2020).

31. Jackson A. Irish History in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish History. Jackson A., ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 3-26. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199549344.001.0001

32. Pine E. The Politics of Irish Memory. Performing Remembrance in Contemporary Irish Culture. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. 210 p. DOI: 10.1057/9780230295315

33. Corporaal M., Cusack Ch., van den Beuken R., eds. Irish Studies and the Dynamics of Memory. Transitions and Transformations. (Reimagining Ireland. Vol. 79). Oxford, P.I.E. – Peter Lang, 2017. 337 p. DOI: 10.3726/b10423

34. Keohane K., Kuhling C. Millenarianism and Utopianism in the New Ireland: The Tragedy (and Comedy) of Accelerated Modernization. Coulter C., Coleman S., eds. The End of Irish History? Critical Reflections on the Celtic Tiger. Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press, 2003, pp. 122-138. DOI: 10.7765/9781526137715.0003


1. The Anholt Ipsos Nation Brands Index. Available at: (accessed 16.04.2022).

2. The Good Country Index. Available at: (accessed 16.04.2022).

3. The Good Country Index. Results. Available at: (accessed 16.04.2022).

4. Anholt-Ipsos Nation Brands Index. Ipsos Press Release, 19.10.2021. Available at: (accessed 16.04.2022).

5. Human Development Report. Ireland. Special Report. 2022. UNDP. Available at: (accessed 12.02.2022).

6. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in Europe. The global, 2020. Available at: (accessed 14.02.2022).

7. Gini Coefficient by Country 2022. World Population Review. Available at: (accessed 05.02.2022).

8. Survey on income and living conditions (SILC) 2019. Poverty and Deprivation. Central Statistics Office. Available at: (accessed 10.02.2022).

9. Eurostat celebrates Ireland. Eurostat, 17.03.2018. Available at: (accessed 10.02.2022).

10. Why are birth rates falling in Ireland? Rte, 03.06.2021. Available at: (accessed 20.02.2022).

11. Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map. World Values Survey Database. Available at: (accessed 20.02.2022).

12. OECD Education at a Glance 2021: OECD Indicators. Paris, OECD Pub., 2021. 42 p. Available at: (accessed 10.03.2022).

13. This is Ireland. The official website of Ireland in the world. Department of Foreign Affairs, Ireland. Available at: (accessed 05.04.2021).

14. Press Statement Population and Migration Estimates April 2021. Central Statistics Office. 31.08.2021. Available at: (accessed 20.02.2022).

15. Remarks by President Biden at the Annual Friends of Ireland Luncheon. White House, 17.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 18.03.2022).

16. Census of Population 2016 – Profile 10 Education, Skills and the Irish language. Central Statistics Office. 23.11.2017. Available at: (accessed 16.03.2021).

17. The Irish Times Poll, December 10th 2021. The Irish Times, 10.12.2021. Available at: (accessed 10.03.2022).

18. The Ireland/Northern Ireland Protocol: Consensus or Conflict? The University of Liverpool, 05.11.2021. 16 p. Available at:,Ireland-Northern,Ireland,Protocol,Consensus,or,Conflict,v3.pdf (accessed 15.02.2022).

19. National Traveller and Roma Inclusion Strategy 2017–2021. Dublin, Department of Justice and Equality, 2017. 48 p. Available at:,%202017-2021.pdf/Files/National%20Traveller%20and%20Roma%20Inclusion%20Strategy,%202017-2021.pdf (accessed 04.04.2022).

20. Sustainable, Inclusive and Empowered Communities. A five-year strategy to support the community and voluntary sector in Ireland. 2019–2024. Government of Ireland, Dublin, 17.10.2019. 52 p. Available at: (accessed 09.02.2022).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Semenenko I. National Development Policies in the Face of Global Challenges: the Irish Pendulum. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 81-93.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 4
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Financial Contagion Propagation in Europe under the Impact of Global Shocks
  • Regional Powers on the African Continent: Trends and Prospects
  • Investment Activity of the PRC in the Kyrgyz Republic
  • “Land Grabbing” Concept: Global and National Aspects
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.