Pan-European Political Space: From Idea to Reality

13
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-6-91-101
B. Guseletov, bguseletov@mail.ru
Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences (IE RAS), 11–3, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation.
 

Received 15.01.2022. Revised 15.03.2022. Accepted 06.04.2022.


Abstract

The article examines the processes of formation and institutionalization of the pan-European political space as an important element of the political system of the European Union. The main theoretical approaches to the study of this problem are presented. The analysis of the Europeanization process and its possible influence on the formation of this space is given. The attitude to this process on the part of the EU political elite, as well as ordinary European citizens, is shown. It is demonstrated that the political institutions of the European Union and the European integration itself influence the political culture, the formation of a common European identity of citizens and their political attitudes. The basic principles and elements of the pan-European political space, including pan-European institutions, political parties, mass media, etc., are described, particularly from the perspective of proponents of various description models, inter alia the models of liberal representation, participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. The main aspects of the evolution of the European Union party and political system, which is an important element of the pan-European political space, are presented. It has been noted that since the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, the European parties have significantly increased their role and influence in the pan-European political system. An attempt is made to understand how the elements and models interact with each other, what the positions of specific European parties and their factions in the European Parliament are considering the future EU development. The importance of successful implementation of the “Spitzenkandidaten principle” was specified, which will allow the European party leaders and their election manifestos to become better known and understood not only by politicized voters, but also by a majority of the electorate. The role and influence of the media and cultural sphere on the formation of this space are analyzed.


Keywords

European Union, pan-European political space, European Parliament, European parties, Europeanization, identity


REFERENCES 

1. Lindberg L.L., Scheingold S.A. Europe’s Would Be Polity: Patterns of Change in the European Community. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1970. 314 p.

2. Hooghe L., Marks G. A Post Functionalist Theory of European Integration: from Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus. British Journal of Political Science, 2009, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1-23.

3. Hix S. What’s Wrong with the European Union and How to Fix It. Cambridge, Polity Press, 2008. 228 p.

4. Semenenko I.S. Identity in the genda of European Elections. European Parliament Elections 2019: National Responses to the Dilemmas of European Integration. Kvashnin Yu.D., Kudryavtsev A.K., Plevako N.S., Shveitser V.Ya., eds. Moscow, IMEMO RAN, IE RAN, 2019, pp. 14-17. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.20542/978-5-9535-0559-8

5. Gerhards J. Westeuropaische Integration und die Schwierigkeiten der Entstehung einer europaischen Offentlichkeit. Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, 1993, vol. 22, pp. 96-110.

6. Grimm D. Does Europe Need a Constitution? European Law Journal, 1995, vol. 1, no. 13, pp. 282-302.

7. Kielmansegg P. Integration und Demokratie. Europaische Integration. Jachtenfuchs M., Kohler-Koch B., eds. Opladen, Leske und Budrich, 1996, pp. 47-71.

8. De Vreese C.H. The EU as a Public Sphere. Living Reviews in European Governance, 2012, vol. 2, no. 3. 22 p. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.12942/lreg-2007-3

9. Eriksen E.O. An Emerging European Public Sphere. European Journal of Social Theory, 2005, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 341-363.

10. Meyer C.O. Europaische Offentlichkeit als Kontrollsphare: Die Europaische Kommission, die Medien und politische Verantwortung. Berlin, Vistas, 2002. 228 p.

11. Risse T., Cowles M.G., Caporaso J.A. Europeanization and Domestic Change: Introduction. Transforming Europe. Europeanization and Domestic Change. Green Cowles M., Caporaso J. A., Risse T., eds. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 2001, pp. 1-20.

12. Mair P. The Europeanization Dimension. Journal of European Public Policy, 2004, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 337-348.

13. Ladrech R. Europeanization of Domestic Politics and Institutions: The Case of France. Journal of Common Market Studies, 1994, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 69-88.

14. Radaelli C.M. Europeanisation: Solution or Problem? European Integration Online Papers (EIoP), 2004, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1-23.

15. Schmidt V. Europeanization and the Mechanics of Policy Adjustment. European Integration online Papers (EIoP), 2001, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 894-912.

16. Peters B.G. Bureaucratic Politics and the Institutions of the European Union. Euro-Politics. Institutions and Policy-Making in the “New” European Community. Sbragia A. M., ed. Washington, The Brookings Institution, 1992, pp. 75-122.

17. Weiler J. The Transformation of Europe. Yale Law Journal, 1991, vol. 100, pp. 2403-2483.

18. Genschel P., Jachtenfuchs M. From Market Integration to Core State Powers: The Eurozone Crisis, the Refugee Crisis and Integration Theory. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2018, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 178-196. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12654

19. Pollak J., Slominski P. Europaische Demokratie im Schnittpunkt von parlamentarischem und regulatorischem Modell. Europaische Identitaten. Mythen, Konstrukte, Konflikte. Mokre M., Weiss G., Baubock R., hrsg. Frankfurt, New York, Campus Verlag, 2003, pp. 257-279.

20. Serrichio F., Tsakatika M., Quaglia L. Euroscepticism and the Global Financial Crisis. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2013, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 51-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.2012.02299.x

21. Usherwood S., Startin N. Euroscepticism as a Persistent Phenomenon. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2013, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.2012.02297.x

22. Follesdal A., Hix S. Why There is a Democratic Deficit in the EU: A Response to Majone and Moravcsik. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2006, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 533-562.

23. Schmidt V.A. Politicization in the EU: Between National Politics and EU Political Dynamics. Journal of European Public Policy, 2019, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1018-1036. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1619189

24. Lindseth P. Power and Legitimacy: Reconciling Europe and the Nation State. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010. 364 p. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390148.001.0001

25. Medushevskii A.N. The European Union after Brexit: Results and Prospects of the Integration Project. Liberal.ru, 08.12.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: https://liberal.ru/authors-projects/evropejskij-soyuz-posle-breksita-itogi-i-perspektivy-integraczionnogo-proekta  (accessed 20.12.2021).

26. Goldberg A.C., van Elsas E.J., de Vreese C.H. Mismatch? Comparing Elite and Citizen Polarisation on EU Issues across Four Countries. Journal of European Public Policy, 2020, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 310-328. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1701531

27. Hurrelmann A., Gora A., Wagner A. The Politicization of European Integration: More than an Elite Affair? Political Studies, 2015, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 43-59. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111%2F1467-9248.12090

28. De Wilde P., Leupold A., Schmidtke H. Introduction: the Differentiated Politicisation of European Governance. West European Politics, 2016, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 3-22. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2015.1081505

29. Zurn M. Politicization Compared: at National, European and Global Levels. Journal of European Public Policy, 2019, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 977-995. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2019.1619188

30. Habermas J. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1996. 676 p.

31. Habermas J. Why Europe Needs a Constitution. New Left Review, 2001, no. 11, pp. 25-45. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489068.002

32. Walter S. Three Models of the European Public Sphere. Journalism Studies, 2017, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 749-770. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1087815

33. Hix S. Why the EU Needs (Left-Right) Politics? Policy Reform and Accountability Are Impossible without it. Notre Europe, Policy Paper, 2006, no. 19, pp. 2-20.

34. Auel K. Democratic Accountability and National Parliaments: Redefining the Impact of Parliamentary Scrutiny in EU Affairs. European Law Journal, 2007, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 487-504. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2007.00380.x

35. Hirst P. Associative Democracy: New Forms of Economic and Social Government. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1994. 232 p.

36. Dahlgren P. Introduction. Communication and Citizenship: Journalism and the Public Sphere. Dahlgren P., Sparks C., eds. London, Routledge, 1991. 276 p.

37. Gutmann A., Thompson D. Democracy and Disagreement. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1996. 422 p.

38. Guseletov B.P. Establishment of the Institute of Pan-European Political Parties. Contemporary Europe, 2020, no. 4, pp. 133-143. (In Russ.) Available at: http://doi.org/10.15211/soveurope42020133143

39. Bardi L. EU Enlargement, European Parliament Elections and Transnational Trends in European Parties. European View, 2006, vol. 2 (1), pp. 13-19.

40. Guseletov B.P. The Party of European Socialists in the EU Political System. Contemporary Europe, 2021, no. 3, pp. 105-115. (In Russ.) Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/soveurope320218393

41. Raube K. From Dawn to Doom: the Institutionalization of the Spitzenkandidaten Process During European Elections and its Final Negation. Assessing the 2019 European Parliament Elections. Kritzinger S., Plescia C., Raube K., Wilhelm J., Wouters J., eds. London, Routledge, 2020. 272 p.

42. Schulze H. The Spitzenkandidaten in the European Parliament Election Campaign Coverage 2014 in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. Politics and Governance, 2016, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23-36. DOI: 10.17645/pag.v4i1.457

43. Popa S.A., Rohrschneider R., Schmitt H. Polarizing without Legitimizing: the Effect of Lead Candidates’ Campaigns on Perceptions of the EU Democracy. Electoral Studies, 2016, vol. 44, pp. 469-482. DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2016.07.001

44. Macron E. Initiative pour l’Europe. Discours d’Emmanuel Macron pour une Europe souveraine, unie, democratique. 26.09.2017. Available at: https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuel-macron/2017/09/26/initiative-pour-l-europe-discours-d-emmanuel-macron-pour-une-europe-souveraine-unie-democratique (accessed 20.12.2021).

45. Anastassopoulos G. Report on a Proposal for an Electoral Procedure Incorporating Common Principles for the Election of Members of the European Parliament. European Parliament. 02.06.1998. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-4-1998-0212_EN.html (accessed 20.12.2021).

46. Christiansen T., Shackleton M. Spitzenkandidaten 2.0: From Experiment to Routine in European Elections? The European Parliament Elections of 2019. De Sio L., Franklin M., Russo L., eds. Rome, Luiss University Press, 2019, pp. 43-57.

47. Hubner D.M., Silva Pereira P. Report on the Composition of the European Parliament (2017/2054(INL) – 2017/0900(NLE)). 26.01.2018. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-8-2018-0007_EN.html (accessed 20.12.2021).

48. Lefkofridi Z., Katsanidou A. A Step Closer to a Transnational Party System? Competition and Coherence in the 2009 and 2014 European Parliament. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2018, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1462-1482. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12755

49. Miklin E. EU Politicisation and National Parliaments: Visibility of Choices and Better Aligned Ministers? Journal of Legislative Studies, 2014, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 78-92. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13572334.2013.871486

50. Mattila M., Raunio T. Drifting Further Apart: National Parties and their Electorates on the EU Dimension. West European Politics, 2012, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 589-606. DOI: 10.1080/01402382.2012.665742

51. De Vries C.H. EU Issue Voting: Asset or Liability? How European Integration Affects Parties’ Electoral Fortunes. European Union Politics, 2010, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 89-117.

52. Hallin D.C., Mancini P. Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 360 .

53. Curran J. Rethinking the Media as a Public Sphere. Communication and Citizenship: Journalism and the Public Sphere. Dahlgren P., Sparks C., eds. London, Routledge, 1991. 31 p.

54. Walter S. Three Models of the European Public Sphere. Journalism Studies, 2017, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 749-770. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1087815

55. Habermas J. The Crisis of the European Union in the Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law. The European Journal of International Law, 2012, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 335-348. DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chs019

56. Bruggemann M., Schulz-Forberg H. Becoming Pan-European? Transnational Media and the European Public Sphere. The International Communication Gazette, 2009, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 693-712. DOI: 10.1177/1748048509345064

57. Nardis Y. News, Trust in the European Parliament, and EP Election Voting: Moderated-Mediation Model Investigating Voting in Established and New Member States. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 2015, vol. 20, pp. 45-66. DOI: 10.1177/1940161214556710

58. Gripsrud J. Television and the European Public Sphere. European Journal of Communication, 2007, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 479-492. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323107083064

59. Sassatelli M. Becoming Europeans. Cultural Identity and Cultural Policies. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 233 p.

60. Bondebjerg I. Transnational Europe: TV-drama, o-Production Networks and Mediated Cultural Encounters. Palgrave Communications, 2016, no. 2(1), pp. 1-13. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1057/palcomms.2016.34

SOURCES 

1. The Single European Act. Available at: https://www.cvce.eu/obj/the_single_european_act-en-abd540f4-e8e6-4d11-8b67-f551892e2f1b.html (accessed 20.12.2021).

2. Treaty of European Union. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:11992M/TXT (accessed 20.12.2021).

3. Juncker J. C. Speech at the Annual General Meeting of the Hellenic Federation of Enterprises. European Commission. 21.06.2016. Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-2293_en.html (accessed 20.12.2021).

4. Public Opinion in the time at a Glance. European Parliament. June 2021. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/at-your-service/files/be-heard/eurobarometer/2020/covid19/en-public-opinion-in-the-time-of-covid19-202106.pdf (accessed 20.12.2021).

5. The 2019 Post-Electoral Survey – Have European Elections Entered a New Dimension? Eurobarometer Survey 91.5 of the European Parliament. A Public Opinion Monitoring Study. European Parliament. 2019. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/at-your-service/files/be-heard/eurobarometer/2019/post-election-survey-2019-complete-results/report/en-post-election-survey-2019-report.pdf (accessed 20.12.2021).

6. Voter Study 2014. European Election Studies. 2014. Available at: http://europeanelectionstudies.net/european-election-studies/ees-2014-study/voter-study-2014 (ccessed 20.12.2021).

7. Voter Study 2019. European Election Studies. 2019. Available at: http://europeanelectionstudies.net/european-election-studies/ees-2019-study/voter-study-2019 (accessed 20.12.2021).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Guseletov B. Pan-European Political Space: From Idea to Reality. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, No 6, pp. 91-101. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-6-91-101



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 9
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Peace Process: on Substantive Definition 
  • Global Imbalances: Evolution of Approaches 
  • The Influence of Brexit on the UK Political Elites Circulation
  • Islamic Vector in Russian Foreign Policy 
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.