Received 14.10.2021. Revised 15.01.2022. Accepted 03.04.2022.
Abstract. This article analyzes the formation process of a new inclusive political institution, which is represented by public mass protests of a non-violent nature. Such actions, the number of which is constantly increasing, take place in states with both authoritarian and democratic governments, and they have become an institutionalized repertoire of political action under all types of government regimes. The socio-information environment, where social and info-communication processes are closely intertwined as a result of mass use of social networks, blogs and other Internet resources, as well as wide spread of mobile telephony and the mobile Internet, has become not only a favorable setting for preparing, organizing and holding mass protest actions without clear leaders and organizational structures, but also a catalyst for such actions. Ever improving information and communication technologies as well as the nature of social media and other Internet resources increase the inclusiveness of mass protests, expand the circle of their participants, simplify the organization process and improve its efficiency. Under authoritarian regimes, when all traditional institutions and mechanisms to influence the authorities and to publicly express attitude to their decisions and actions are blocked, mass protests provide certain opportunities to put pressure on the government, and also serve as an institutional factor in the transformation of such regimes. Under democratic regimes, when in the face of post-industrial civilizational transit, traditional institutions and mechanisms of political involvement and influence on the current government appear to be insufficiently effective, and there is a dysfunction of democratic political systems due to their delayed adaptation to new conditions, public mass protests act as a new inclusive political institution designed to compensate for the dysfunction.
Keywords: public mass protests, inclusive political institution, social-information environment, transformation of authoritarian regime, post-industrial civilizational transit, dysfunction of political system
- Ozhegov S.I. Dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow, “Russkii yazyk”, 1988. 750 p. (In Russ.)
- Gandi M.K. My life. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo vostochnoi literatury, 1959. 443 p. (In Russ.)
- Stephan M.J., Chenoweth E. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. International Security, 2008, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 7-44. DOI: 10.1162/isec.2008.33.1.7
- Fisher D.R., Andrews K.T., Caren N., Chenoweth E., Heaney M.T., Leung T., Perkins L.N., Pressman J. The science of contemporary street protest: New efforts in the United States. Science Advances, October 2019, vol. 5, no. 10. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw5461 Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336756224_The_science_of_contemporary_street_protest_New_efforts_in_the_United_States (accessed 05.10.2021).
- Biggs M. Size Matters: Quantifying Protest by Counting Participants. Sociological Methods & Research, 2018, vol. 47 (3), pp. 351-383. DOI: 10.1177/0049124116629166
- Semenov A. Event analysis of protests as a tool for studying political mobilization. Sotsiologicheskoe obozrenie, 2018, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 317-341. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17323/1728-192X-2018-2-317-341
- Clark D., Regan P. Mass Mobilization Protest Data. 2016, vol. 5. Available at: https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/HTTWYL (accessed 08.10.2021).
- Ortiz I., Burke S., Berrada M., Cortés H. World Protests 2006–2013. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung New York. Working Paper, September 2013. Available at: https://policydialogue.org/files/publications/World_Protests_2006-2013-Complete_and_Final_4282014.pdf (accessed 08.10.2021).
- Nazarov M.M. Political protest: an experience of empirical analysis. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 1995, no. 1, pp. 47-59. (In Russ.) eLIBRARY ID: 45547778
- Della P.D., Mattoni A. Social movements. The international encyclopedia of political communication. MA, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118541555.wbiepc010 (accessed 08.10.2021).
- Tilly Ch. Social Movements 1768–2004. Boulder CO, London, Paradigm Publishers, 2004. 262 p.
- Zdravomyslova E.A. Sociological approaches to the analysis of social movements. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 1990, no. 7, pp. 88-94. (In Russ.)
- Shul’ts E.E. The theory of social movements: problems of theory and practice. Vestnik Severnogo (Arkticheskogo) federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye i sotsial’nye nauki, 2014, no. 4, pp. 23-30. (In Russ.) Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/teoriya-sotsialnyh-dvizheniy-problemy-teorii-i-praktiki/viewer (accessed 21.02.2022).
- Strel’tsov D.V. Introduction. Social protest in the modern East. Strel’tsov D.V., ed. Moscow, “Aspekt Press”, 2016, pp. 4-27. (In Russ.)
- Della P.D., Diani M. Social Movements: An Introduction. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. 356 p.
- Rubio M. Why Protests Matter: the Battle Between Authoritarianism and Democracy, a War We Must Win. Journal of International Affairs, 2020, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 251-260. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26939982 (accessed 08.09.2021).
- Monshipouri M. Protecting human rights in an era of global protests. Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relation, 2020, vol. XXI, no. 2, pp. 5-19.
- Carothers T., Wong D. Misunderstanding Global Protests. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 01.04.2020. Available at: https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/04/01/misunderstanding-global-protests-pub-81412 (accessed 08.09.2021).
- Yakovlev P.P., Yakovleva N.M. The Protest Potential of Latin America: A Regional Cut of a Global Phenomenon. World Economy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 89-99. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-7-89-99
- Brzezinski Z. The global political awakening. The New York Times, 16.12.2008. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/16/opinion/16iht-YEbrzezinski.1.18730411.html (accessed 08.09.2021).
- Gutting R.S. Contentious Activities, Disrespectful Protesters: Efect of Protest Context on Protest Support and Mobilization Across Ideology and Authoritarianism. Political Behavior, 2020, vol. 42, iss. 3, pp. 865-890. DOI: 10.1007/s11109-018- 09523-8
- Acemoglu D., Robinson J.A. Why Nations Fail. The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty. New York, Crown Publishers, 2012. 529 p.
- Croissant A., Kuehn D., Eschenauer T. Mass Protests and the Military. Journal of Democracy, 2018, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 141-155. DOI: 10.1353/jod.2018.0051
- Kendall-Taylor A., Frantz E. How Autocracies Fall. The Washington Quarterly, 2014, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 35-47. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/0163660X.2014.893172
- Polterovich V.M. The Crisis of Political Competition Institutions, the Internet and Collaborative Democracy. Voprosy ehkonomiki, 2021, no. 1, pp. 52-72. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.32609/0042-8736-2021-1-52-72
- Malashenko A.V., Nisnevich Yu.A., Ryabov A.V. Formation of Post-Industrial Civilization: from Digitalization to Barbarism. Moscow, “Yurait”, 2019. 212 p. (In Russ.)
- McMurry N. The Right for Protest to be Heard. Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Spring/Summer 2020, vol. XXI, no. 2, pp. 93-107.
- North D.C. Institutions. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1991, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 97-112. DOI: 10.1257/jep.5.1.97 Available at: https://edisciplinas.usp.br/pluginfile.php/1695541/mod_resource/content/1/North%20%281991%29.pdf (accessed 08.09.2021).
- Nisnevich Yu.A. Politics and Corruption: Corruption as a Factor of the Global Political Process. Moscow, “Yurait”, 2017. 240 p. (In Russ.)
- Kemp S. Digital 2020. Global Overview Report. We Are Social Ltd., 30.01.2020. Available at: https://wearesocial.com/blog/2020/01/digital‑2020-3-8-billion-people-use-social-media# (accessed 10.12.2021).
- Efimov E.G. Social Internetnetworks (research methodology and practice): monography. Volgograd, Volgogradskoe nauchnoe izdatel’stvo, 2015. 168 p. (In Russ.)
- Ruijgrok K. From the web to the streets: internet and protests under authoritarian regimes. Democratization, 2017, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 498-520. DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2016.1223630
- Brennan Glyn. How Digital Media Reshapes Political Activism: Mass Protests, Social Mobilization, and Civic Engagement. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 2018, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 76-81. DOI: 10.22381/GHIR102201810
- Mal’kevich A.A. The Role of Social Media in Protest Political Participation of Citizens. Upravlencheskoe konsul’tirovanie, 2020, no. 1, pp. 35-42. (In Russ.) DOI: https://doi.org/10.22394/1726-1139-2020-1-35-42
- Nisnevich Yu.A. Corruption, Youth, Internet, and … Army. European Scientific Journal, December 2013 /SPECIAL/ edition, vol. 4, ðð. 678-683. Available at: https://www.hse.ru/data/2014/03/20/1332340566/European%20Scientific%20Journal%202798-8067-1-PB.pdf (accessed 10.12.2021).
- Gonim V. Revolution 2.0: Documentary novel. Sankt-Peterburg, Izdatel’skaya gruppa “Lenizdat”, “Komanda A”, 2012. 352 p. (In Russ.)]
- Van’ke A., Ksenofontova I., Tartakovskaya I. Internet communications as a means and condition for political mobilization in Russia (on the example of “For Fair Elections movement”). Interaktsiya. Interv’yu. Interpretatsiya, 2014, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 44-73. (In Russ.)
- Shmerlina I.A. Social Institute: Analysis of Research Approaches. Sotsiologicheskii zhurnal, 2008, no. 4, pp. 53-69. (In Russ.)
- Yanitskiy O.N. About rallies as a social phenomenon. Institute of Sociology RAS. 15.06.2012. (In Russ.)] Available at: https://www.isras.ru/blog_yan_43.html (accessed 08.09.2021).
- Chong D., Liu M., Zhang Qi. Collective Resistance under Authoritarianism: Elite-Mass Strategies in an Experimental Game. Political Behavior, 2016, vol. 38, iss. 4, pp. 951-976. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-016-9342-z
- Carothers T. The End of the Transition Paradigm. Journal of Democracy, 2002, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 5-21. DOI: 10.1353/jod.2002.0003
- The Global Nonviolent Action Database. Available at: https://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/ (accessed 10.09.2021).
- Global Protest Tracker. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2017. Available at: https://carnegieendowment.org/publications/interactive/protest-tracker (accessed 02.02.2022).
- Freedom in the World. Freedom House. Available at: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world (accessed 10.09.2021).
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx (accessed 10.09.2021).
- Worldometer. Dadax. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/ru/ (accessed10.09.2021).
Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX