Development Policy or Migration management? (The EU Approach)

42
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-2-80-89
E. Khakhalkina, ekhakhalkina@mail.ru
National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenina Prosp., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.
A. Pogorelskaya, pogorelskaya@mail.tsu.ru
National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenina Prosp., Tomsk, 634050, Russian Federation.

Received 11.05.2021.

Acknowledgements. The article has been supported by a grant of the Russian Science Foundation. Project no. 22-28-00187 “Uncertainty as the Norm of Life: The EU Identity & Global Transformations”.


Abstract. The main purpose of the research is to identify the achievements and failures of the European Communi-ties/European Union development policies in terms of countering unwanted migration from third countries to Europe. European development policy started in the 1950–1960s due to the colonial past of many European states which felt responsibility for their ex-colonies. Common development policy was based at first on the values, but later transformed to serve the European geopolitical interests. Therefore, the European development policy changed from providing unilateral preferences and gratuitous help to making any aid conditional on the partner’s ability to meet the EU requirements. Thus, the responsibility for development was gradually moved from Europe to the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states. In the 2000s, the need to prevent massive immigration making it more manageable became one of the regular EU interests. Therefore, the European Union launched the external dimension of its migration policy that was aimed at making development work for migration prevention. This trend contributed to the EU development policy reorientation from the poorest states to the nearest ones. Although the EU development policy was transformed, it failed to meet most of its aims. The main failures were the expectation to limit immigration in the short-term and overestimation of the Union’s normative power. Because of both Brussels’ inability to ensure development globally and the widening gap in the welfare between the ACP states and Europe, the immigration to the EU is unlikely to drop until 2060s.

Keywords: European Union, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, development policy, normative power, foreign policy, migration regulation, conditionality, external dimension of migration policy


REFERENCES

  1. UN list of Least Developed Countries. UNCTAD. Available at: https://unctad.org/en/pages/aldc/Least%20Developed%20Countries/UN-list-of-Least-Developed-Countries.aspx (accessed 11.04.2021).
  2. GDP per Capita (current US$). The World Bank. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD (accessed 12.04.2021).
  3. Izmest’ev A.V. The European Union’s Aid to Developing Countries (Economic Analysis). Ekonomicheskii zhurnal, 2003, no. 2 (7), pp. 126-142. (In Russ.) Available at: http://economicarggu.ru/2003_2/izmestev.pdf (accessed 10.04.2021).
  4. Rostow W.W. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1960. 179 p.
  5. Holland M., Doidge M. Development Policy of the European Union. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 277 p.
  6. Bartley G. World Poverty and the Duty of Assistance. Philosophy Now, 2006. Available at: https://philosophynow.org/issues/57/World_Poverty_and_the_Duty_of_Assistance (accessed 10.04.2021).
  7. Treaties on the European Communities. Moscow, Pravo, 1994. 390 p. (In Russ.)
  8. ACP-EEC Convention Signed at Lomé on 28 February 1975. Available at: http://www.acp.int/content/lome-i-convention (accessed 10.04.2021).
  9. Third ACP-EEC Convention Signed at Lomé on 8 December 1984. Available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/4492/1/4492.pdf (accessed 10.04.2021).
  10. Fourth ACP-EEC Convention Signed at Lomé on 15 December 1989. Available at: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/5fc60e77-0b35-4b68-88bf-de7b2cf8edd4/language-en (accessed 10.04.2021).
  11. Conclusions of the Presidency. European Council in Edinburgh, 11–12 December, 1992. Available at: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/20492/1992_december_-_edinburgh__eng_.pdf (accessed 24.03.2021).
  12. Sadovskaya A. The European Union Policy Towards the Developing Countries in the 1990–2000s. Journal of International Law and International Relations, 2004, no. 3, pp. 43-47. (In Russ.)
  13. Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part, signed in Cotonou on 23 June 2000. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2000. Available at: http://www.acp.int/sites/acpsec.waw.be/files/Cotonou2000.pdf (accessed 10.04.2021).
  14. World Migration Report 2020. IOM UN Migration. Available at: https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf (accessed 16.04.2021).
  15. Harnes Ch. Regional Inter-State Consultation Mechanisms on Migration: Approaches, Recent Activities and Implications for Global Governance of Migration. IOM Migration Research Series, no. 45. Available at: http://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/What-We-Do/docs/2013-Global-RCP-Background-Study_MRS45.pdf (accessed 18.04.2021).
  16. Dennison S., Fine Sh., Gowan R. False Moves: Migration and Development Aid. European Council on Foreign Relations. Policy Brief, 8 October, 2019. Available at: https://ecfr.eu/publication/false_moves_migration_and_development_aid/ (accessed 18.04.2021).
  17. Overview – Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. European Commission. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/instruments/overview_en (accessed 26.03.2021).
  18. Financial Information on the European Development Funds. Communication from the Commission to the Council. Bruxelles, 25.05.2004. COM (2004) 382 final. Commission of the European Communities. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52004DC0382&from=EN (accessed 26.03.2021).
  19. Pichon E. Understanding Development Effectiveness. Concepts, Players and Tools. European Parliament. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/599401/EPRS_BRI(2017)599401_EN.pdf (accessed 18.04.2021).
  20. Over One Million Sea Arrivals Reach Europe in 2015. UNHCR. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2015/12/5683d0b56/million-sea-arrivals-reach-europe-2015.html (accessed 15.03.2021).
  21. Baczynska G., Chalmers J. Exclusive: EU Fumes at Turk Migration “Blackmail”, Mulls More Money for Ankara. Reuters, 03.03.2020. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-security-eu-turkey-exclusive/exclusive-eu-fumes-at-turk-migration-blackmail-mulls-more-money-for-ankara-idUSKBN20Q2EK (accessed 18.04.2021).
  22. Migration Control Conditionality: a Flawed Model. Policy Note no. 25, 2020. European Council on Refugees and Exiles. Available at: https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/PN_25.pdf (accessed 16.04.2021).
  23. A European Agenda on Migration. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels, 13.05.2015. COM (2015) 240 final. European Commission. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52015DC0240&from=EN (accessed 23.03.2021).
  24. Recipients Data from 2007 to 2021. EU Aid Explorer. European Commission. Available at: https://euaidexplorer.ec.europa.eu/explore/recipients_en (accessed 23.03.2021).
  25. Shenfeldt A.The European Development Response to the Refugee and Migration Crisis. International Organizations Research Journal, 2018, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 195-212. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17323/1996-7845-2018-04-09
  26. D’Alfonso A. European Development Fund. Joint Development Cooperation and the EU Budget: out or in? In-Depth Analysis. European Parliamentary Research Service. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/EPRS/EPRS-IDA-542140-European-Development-Fund-FINAL.pdf (accessed 16.04.2021).
  27. International Migration Trends 1960–2000. UN Population Division. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/events/pdf/expert/8/PopulationDivI_pp.pdf (accessed 18.04.2021).
  28. Buettner T., Muenz R. Comparative Analysis of International Migration in Population Projections. KNOMAD Working Paper 10, March 2016. Available at: https://www.knomad.org/sites/default/files/2017-04/KNOMAD%20WP%2010%20Comparative%20Analysis%20of%20International%20Migration%20in%20Population%20Projections.pdf (accessed 18.04.2021).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Khakhalkina E., Pogorelskaya A. Development Policy or Migration management? (The EU Approach). World Eonomy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, No 2, pp. 80-89. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-2-80-89



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2023, vol. 67, No. 3
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Tax Instruments to Stimulate Innovations in EU Countries 
  • Russia and Western Balkans: Realized and Missed Opportunities in Trade
  • Spanish Society: Stable Instability 
  • ASEAN and the Myanmar Dilemma 
  • Greater Middle East
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.