Muslim Brotherhood in Maghreb: Transformations of Political Islam in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia

24
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-11-60-71
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.
 

Received 08.08.2022. Revised 19.08.2022. Accepted 24.08.2022.

Acknowledgements. The article was prepared within the project “Post-crisis world order: challenges and technologies, competition and cooperation” supported by the grant from Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation program for research projects in priority areas of scientific and technological development (Agreement No. 075-15-2020-783).


Abstract. Since their formation, the parties of political Islam that exist today in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia were traditionally seen as the “voice of people” in authoritarian states, the means and the vanguard of social movement for a better life. In an attempt to enter political arena, while adapting to different challenges posed by their regimes as well as jihadi Islamism both domestically and regionally, these Islamist parties have undergone a number of transformations both in their ideology and relations with the regime. However, the crucial point of these transformations was becoming a part of the state that they had been aiming to change. After their short-lived electoral success, they find themselves in crisis. First, they are no longer perceived as a sociopolitical force that strives to voice concerns of the oppressed and to fight for their interests against the unjust regimes. Instead, they are now deeply associated with the “old guard”, no less corrupt than the governments and the political elites, against whom people protest. Second, while they were trying to adapt democratic ideas to their narratives, they were moving further away from their Islamist identity. Third, they have learnt the constraints of their political capabilities: in order to preserve their legal status, they have to coopt with the regimes, but when they do they lose their public support, and when they resent this cooptation, the regimes force them to weakness and internal divisions, yet again causing loss of social base.

Keywords: political Islam, Muslim Brotherhood, Islamist parties, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia


REFERENCES 

1. Solomon H., Tausch A. The Demise of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab World? Jewish Political Studies Review, 2020, vol. 31, no. 1/2, pp. 171-209.

2. Brichs F.I., Etherington J., Feliu L., eds. Political Islam in a Time of Revolt. Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 280 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-52833-5

3. Vidyasova M.F., Orlov V.V. Political Islam in North African Countries. History and Modernity. Moscow, Moscow University Publishing, 2008. 512 p. (In Russ.)

4. Ghanem D. The Shifting Foundations of Political Islam in Algeria. Carnegie Middle East Center, April 2019. Available at: https://carnegieendowment.org/files/03_19_Ghanem_Algeria.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

5. Boubekeur A. Political Islam in Algeria. Working Document No. 268. Centre for European Policy Studies, May 2007. Available at: https://www.ceps.eu/download/publication/?id=5631&pdf=1502.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

6. Ghanem D. The Decline of Islamist Parties in Algeria. Carnegie Middle East Center, 13.02.2014. Available at: https://carnegie-mec.org/sada/54510 (accessed 01.08.2022).

7. Zakharov A., Isaev L. Kingdom of Morocco, Bureaucratization of Islam and a New Arab Spring. Neprikosnovennyi zapas, 2021, no. 2 (136), pp. 195-220. (In Russ.)

8. Francois E.S. The Movement for Unicity and Reform: Between Da’wa and Dissent. Thesis, DPhil in Oriental Studies. University of Oxford, 2016. 350 p. Available at: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:6077253b-0704-4e94-a410-ce521b4bc78e/download_file?file_format=application/pdf&safe_filename=FrancoisPhD_20161004.pdf&type_of_work=Thesis (accessed 01.08.2022).

9. El Mellouki S. The Infusion of Islam into Pluralistic Politics: The Need to Explore the Islamist Identity beyond Ideological Boundaries – The Case of the Moroccan Party of Justice and Development. Discourse & Society, 2015, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 662-681. DOI: 10.1177/0957926515592778

10. El Sherif A.N. Institutional and Ideological Re-construction of the Justice and Development Party (PJD): The Question of Democratic Islamism in Morocco. Middle East Journal, 2012, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 660-682. DOI: 10.3751/66.4.15

11. Fakir I. Morocco’s Islamist Party: Redefining Politics Under Pressure. Carnegie, 28.12.2017. Available at: https://carnegieendowment.org/2017/12/28/morocco-s-islamist-party-redefining-politics-under-pressure-pub-75121 (accessed 01.08.2022).

12. Snyder P.S. Morocco’s Islamist Party Just Lost Power. So Why Is It Turning to Its Old Leader? The Washington Post, 16.11.2021. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2021/11/16/moroccos-islamist-party-just-lost-power-so-why-is-it-turning-its-old-leader/ (accessed 01.08.2022).

13. Masbah M. Morocco: Can the PJD Still Absorb Popular Anger? Arab Reform, 30.03.2020. Available at: https://www.arab-reform.net/publication/morocco-can-the-pjd-still-absorb-popular-anger/ (accessed 01.08.2022).

14. Sanz A. The PJD Takes Responsibility for Electoral Decline. Atalayar, 04.04.2022. Available at: https://atalayar.com/en/content/pjd-takes-responsibility-electoral-decline (accessed 01.08.2022).

15. Arredondas M. Abdelilah Benkirane Returns to Justice and Development Party. Atalayar, 31.10.2021. Available at: https://atalayar.com/en/content/abdelilah-benkirane-returns-justice-and-development-party (accessed 01.08.2022).

16. El Esawi T. Ennahda Official Says Movement Ready for Early Elections. Middle East Monitor, 03.08.2021. Available at: https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20210803-ennahda-official-says-movement-ready-for-early-elections/ (accessed 01.08.2021).

17. Quillen S. Tunisia’s Future Darkens with Dissolution of Parliament. Al Monitor, 05.04.2022. Available at: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2022/04/tunisias-future-darkens-dissolution-parliament#ixzz7R6ydVJD2 (accessed 01.08.2021).

18. Ghannouchi R. From Political Islam to Muslim Democracy: The Ennahda Party and the Future of Tunisia. Foreign Affairs, 2016, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 58-67.

19. March A.F. What Is “Muslim” about Tunisia’s “Muslim Democrats”? Middle East Brief no. 142. Crown Center for Middle East Studies, May 2021. Available at: https://www.brandeis.edu/crown/publications/middle-east-briefs/pdfs/101-200/meb142.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

20. Lorch J., Chakroun H. Salafism Meets Populism: The Al-Karama Coalition and the Malleability of Political Salafism in Tunisia. Middle East Institute, 12.05.2020. Available at: https://www.mei.edu/publications/salafism-meets-populism-al-karama-coalition-and-malleability-political-salafism (accessed 01.08.2022).

21. Jebli H. Tunisia’s Ennahda Party Shaken by Resignations, Political Crisis. Al Monitor, 07.10.2021. Available at: https://www.al-monitor.com/originals/2021/10/tunisias-ennahda-party-shaken-resignations-political-crisis#ixzz78zDXSTQP (accessed 01.08.2022).

22. Kashina A.A. Political Islam in Tunisia after “July 25, 2021, Coup”. Urgent Issues of World Politics through the Prism of COVID‑19: Collection of Abstracts. Moscow, Diplomatic Academy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, 2021, pp. 84-87.

SOURCES 

1. Campaign Program for Parliamentary Election May 10, 2012. Jabhat al-`Adala wa’l-Tanmiyya (Justice and Development Front), Algeria. Translated for the Islamic Political Party Platform Project. University of North Carolina. Available at: https://kurzman.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1410/2011/06/DZA-2012-Justice-and-Development-Party.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

2. Campaign Program for Parliamentary Election May 10, 2012. Takatul al-Jaza’ir al-Hadara (Algerian Green Alliance), Algeria. Translated for the Islamic Political Party Platform Project. University of North Carolina. Available at: https://kurzman.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1410/2011/06/DZA-2012-Green-Algerian-alliance.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

3. Algeria Ruling Party Wins Parliamentary Poll with Record Low Turnout. RFI, 16.06.2021. Available at: https://www.rfi.fr/en/africa/20210616-algeria-ruling-party-wins-parliamentary-poll-with-record-low-turnout-elections-north-africaprotests-arrests-journalists-press-freedom (accessed 01.08.2022).

4. Attawhid wal’Islah: Vision and Message. Attawhid wal’Islah Movement. (In Arab.) Available at: https://alislah.ma/2876-2/ (accessed 01.08.2022).

5. For New Morocco: Morocco of Freedom, Dignity, Development and Justice. Justice and Development Party Electoral Program 2011. Justice and Development Party. (In Arab.) Available at: https://www.pjd.ma/sites/default/files/Barnamajintikhabi-pjd.pdf (accessed 01.08.2022).

6. Social Democracy and the Challenges of Political Renewal in Morocco. 3rd National Conference. Party of Authenticity and Modernity, 22–24.01.2016. (In Arab.) Available at: https://www.pam.ma/%D9%88%D8%AB%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AC%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%83%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A9.pdf (accessed 24.08.2022).

7. Selon Sigma, 88% des Tunisiens ne temoignent aucune confiance a Ghannouchi. Espace Manager, 23.03.2022. Available at: https://www.espacemanager.com/selon-sigma-88-des-tunisiens-ne-temoignent-aucune-confiance-ghannouchi.html (accessed 01.08.2022).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Tyukaeva T. Muslim Brotherhood in Maghreb: Transformations of Political Islam in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, No 11, pp. 60-71. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-11-60-71



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2023, vol. 67, No. 1
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism of the European Union: a New Tool of Global Governance
  • Russia in American Climate Strategies
  • Latin America and NATO: Correlation Formats in the XX – the First Quarter of the XXI Century
  • Russia’s Chance to Renew Global Modernity
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.