New Vectors of German Energy Policy

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-10-56-64
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation.

Received 19.05.2022. Revised 01.06.2022. Accepted 02.08.2022.

Acknowledgments. The article was prepared within the project “Post-Crisis World Order: Challenges and Technologies, Competition and Cooperation” supported by the grant from Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation program for research projects in priority areas of scientific and technological development (Agreement No. 075-15-2020-783).

Abstract. The article is devoted to energy policy of Germany. In the coalition treaty, the new German “red-green-yellow” coalition confirmed the commitment to achieve climate neutrality by 2045. In line with this goal Germany has developed a strategy to move away from coal as a primary source of energy. And, in the meantime, Berlin will close the last three Nuclear Power Plants by the end of the year 2022. The Russian special military operation in Ukraine has influenced the German energy policy significantly. Since February 2022, the German government has put a premium on substitution of Russian energy. The aim of this article is to analyze the coherence of the two policies: energy transition and rejection of Russian energy resources. The author explores phasing out nuclear power and coal, import of oil and gas, development of hydrogen production and renewables in Germany. The analysis revealed that two tracks do not complement each other. Both tracks should trace to the same goal – carbon-free energy, – but they have different temporal frameworks. While political elites claim to phase out Russian fuels within two years, the energy transition should take around 30 years. The natural gas was supposed to be the transitional energy, but more than half of it comes from Russia. Substitution of Russian coal and Russian oil requires more investment, and it could reduce the ability to subsidize renewables. Potential cooperation between Germany and Russia in hydrogen production was frozen. Only the policy aimed at improving energy efficiency and developing new building standards is likely to fit both tracks.

Keywords: Germany, energy transition, Russia, sanctions, nuclear power plants, coal, gas, oil, hydrogen, renewable energy soures


1. Andreeva E.L., Ratner A.V., Sobolev A.O. Impact of Renewable Energy Development in Germany on Russian Energy Export. Contemporary Europe, 2021, no. 4, pp. 71-82. (In Russ.) DOI:

2. Afanas’eva M. Will Green Hydrogen Become the “Future Oil” in Germany? Russian International Affairs Council. 20.05.2021. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 26.04.2022).

3. Belov V.B. New Hydrogen Strategies of Germany and the EU and Prospects for Cooperation with Russia. Contemporary Europe, 2020, no. 5, pp. 65-76. (In Russ.) DOI:

4. Meden N.K. Energy Revolution in Social Market Economy. German Experience. Contemporary Europe, 2019, no. 2, pp. 142-150. (In Russ.) DOI:

5. Supyan N.V. The Narrowing Bridge: The Challenges to German Energy Policy. Contemporary Europe, 2011, no. 3, pp. 67-79. (In Russ.)

6. Shagina M., Westphal K. Nord Stream 2 und das Energie-Sicherheitsdilemma. Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. 27.07.2021. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2022).

7. Traufetter G. Wie sich Deutschland unabhangig von Russlands Energie machen will. Spiegel, 25.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).

8. Bohl L. Woher bekommt Deutschland sein Rohol? Stuttgarter Nachrichten, 09.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).

9. Kartschall A. Planspiele fur die Unabhangigkeit. Tagesschau, 26.04.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).

10. Reiter F. Der Schatz unter dem Nordseeboden soll Deutschland unabhangiger von Putin machen. Focus online, 06.05.2022. Available at: (accessed 07.05.2022).


  1. Informationen zur Energiepolitik in Deutschland. Deutscher Bundestag. 2021. Available at: (accessed 10.05.2022).
  2. Au.enhandel mit Russland im Januar 2022 gegenuber dem Vorjahresmonat gestiegen. Statistisches Bundesamt. 15.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 10.05.2022).
  3. Der Atomausstieg in Deutschland. Bundesamt fur die Sicherheit der nuklearen Entsorgung. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  4. Atomkraftwerke in Deutschland. Bundesministerium fur Umwelt, Naturschutz, nukleare Sicherheit und Verbraucherschutz. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  5. Anteil der Kernenergie an der Stromerzeugung in Deutschland in den Jahren 2000 bis 2020. Statista. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  6. Energieverbrauch zieht wieder an. AGEB AG Energiebilanzen e.V. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  7. AKW aus, AKW an: Kann man alte Atomkraftwerke einfach wieder hochfahren? RND, 16.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 25.04.2022).
  8. Statistical Review of World Energy 2021. 70th edition. BP. 2021. Available at: (accessed 25.04.2022).
  9. Statistical Review of World Energy 2019. 68th edition. BP. 2019. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  10. Primarenergiegewinnung und -importe. Umwelt Bundesamt. 17.01.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  11. Daten und Fakten zu Braun- und Steinkohlen Stand und Perspektiven (2021). Umwelt Bundesamt. 28/2021. 106 S. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  12. Fortschrittsbericht Energiesicherheit. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz. 25.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  13. Jahresbericht 2020. Fakten und Trends 2019/20. Berlin, Verein der Kohlenimporteur, 2020. 119 S. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  14. Zweiter Fortschrittsbericht Energiesicherheit. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz. 01.05.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  15. Fragen und Antworten zum Kohleausstieg in Deutschland. Bundesministerium fur Umwelt, Naturschutz, nukleare Sicherheit und Verbraucherschutz. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  16. Von der Kohle hin zur Zukunft. Die Bundesregierung. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  17. Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft 2021. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie im Auftrag von Agora Energiewende und der European Climate Foundation. Berlin, Öko-Institut, 2022. 14 S.
  18. Ukraine-Krieg: Ohne russisches Ol aus der “Druschba”-Pipeline – geht das?, 25.03.2022. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  19. Erdgas in Deutschland. Zahlen und Fakten fuer das Jahr 2021. Berlin, Zukunft Gas, 2022. 7 S. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).
  20. Verteilung der Erdgasbezugsquellen Deutschlands im Jahr 2020. Statista. Available at: (accessed 02.05.2022).
  21. Die Nationale Wasserstoffstrategie. Die Bundesregierung. Berlin, Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz, 2020. 29 S. Available at: (accessed 10.03.2022).
  22. Gesetz uber die Einspeisung von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien in das offentliche Netz (Stromeinspeisungsgesetz). Available at: (accessed 26.04.2022).
  23. EEG 2017: Start in die nachste Phase der Energiewende. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2022).
  24. Erneuerbare Energien. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Klimaschutz. Available at: (accessed 26.04.2022).
  25. Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen. Umwelt Bundesamt. Available at: (accessed 30.04.2022).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Khorolskaya M. New Vectors of German Energy Policy. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2022, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 56-64.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 6
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The “Pivot to Asia”: AUKUS in the Perception of American Politicum
  • The Collapse of the European Collective Security System
  • Public Investment and Sustainability of World Economy
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Trends, Proportions and Factors of Development
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.