Christian Churches and the Antiidentist Revolution

28
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-8-97-108
Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences (IE RAS), 11/3, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation;
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (IOS RAS), 12, Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation

Received 10.01.2021.

Abstract. The article analyzes the ideological contradictions of liberal democracy, or neoliberalism (antiidentism), and traditionalism (identism) on the example of Christian churches. Antiindentism considers traditional religiosity to be hostile: it should be reformed to conform to neoliberal values, and it should be banished from public space. At the same time, antiidentism does not want to eliminate religion, because it is one of the identities that have to be redone like other human identites. The article examines anti-Christian movements (like the “Black Lives Matter”) as well as conservative and liberal movements within various confessions. The authors emphasize that the antiidentist demands are based on the Christian values of respect for any person, for women and men, regardless of anything, for humane methods of raising children, mercy for any categories of people, regardless of their sexual orientation, etc. On the other hand, the demands of antiidentists go far beyond Christian principles and even common sense (not to quote inconvenient passages of the Bible, to change the rules of church life and the appointment of clergy). The article proposes a classification of confessions by direction and by territorial feature, depending on specifics of divisions based on the attitude to antiidentism (American Churches, the Catholic Church, Lutherans and Anglicans as well as diversity of Orthodox churches that are also touched by the antiidentist wave). The authors conclude that the Christian churches, despite the existence of liberal factions, are primarily a traditionalist force in modern politics. Because of fundamental ideological differences, the consolidation of diverse Christian forces is a difficult task. However, there is some progress in this direction. Evangelicals, traditional Catholics, who make up the majority of the Catholic Church, as well as the majority of Orthodox Christians, are a serious political and, what perhaps more important, ideological force.

Keywords: liberal democracy, traditionalism, antitraditionalism, problems of indentity, Christianity, sexual morality, gender policy


REFERENCES

  1. Mexico has demanded an apology from the Catholic Church for its role in conquering the region 500 years ago. Kommersant, 11.10.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4528943 (accessed 10.01.2021).
  2. Faustova M. The fight against racism turns into a fight against Christianity. NG-Religii, 04.08.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.ng.ru/ng_religii/2020-08-04/11_491_racism.html m(accessed 10.01.2021).
  3. Skripunov A. “Hatred of everything alien”. Millions of people join the new religion. RIA News, 15.07.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://ria.ru/20200715/1574358380.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  4. Geneva: next to the grave of Jean Calvin, the body of a prostitute will be reburied. Blagovest, 03.03.2009. (In Russ.) Available at: http://blagovest-info.ru/index.php?ss=2&s=3&id=26046 (accessed 10.01.2021).
  5. Freeman H. “Tradwives”: the new trend for submissive women has a dark heart and history. The Guardian, 27.01.2020. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2020/jan/27/tradwives-new-trend-submissive-women-dark-heart-history (accessed 10.01.2021).
  6. Baptist Hate-Preacher Spends Mother’s Day Preaching That “Feminism is a Plague”. Friendly Atheist, 11.05.2020. Available at: https://friendlyatheist.patheos.com/2020/05/11/baptist-hate-preacher-spends-mothers-day-preaching-that-feminism-is-a-plague/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  7. Feminism is dangerous for the family and creates conditions for sodomy, according to the Vatican. Sedmitsa.RU, 02.08.2004. (In Russ.) Available at: https://sedmitza.ru/text/310205.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  8. Thousands rally to demand gender equality in National Feminist Strike. Buenos Aires Nimes, 09.03.2020. Available at: https://www.batimes.com.ar/news/argentina/thousands-gather-for-national-feminist-strike-to-demand-equality.phtml (accessed 10.01.2021).
  9. Feminists in Northern Ireland demand legalisation of abortion. Sedmitsa.RU, 25.05.2016. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/6329886.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  10. Prison for flowers and kind words: Canadian woman is tried for peaceful fight against abortion. Sedmitsa.RU, 13.06.2017. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/7269161.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  11. “If you’re not gay, go to jail”. Christians in the United States and Europe are persecuted for preaching. RIA News, 28.03.2018. (In Russ.) Available at: https://ria.ru/20180328/1517405504.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  12. Florida State student government removes president for privately stating Catholic teaching on LGBT issues. The College Fix, 08.06.2020. Available at: https://www.thecollegefix.com/florida-state-student-government-removes-president-for-privately-stating-catholic-teaching-on-lgbt-issues/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  13. A More Secular Europe, Divided by the Cross. The New York Times, 17.06.2013. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/18/world/europe/a-more-secular-europe-divided-by-the-cross.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  14. European Court of Human Rights hears case on removal of Crucifixes from kindergartens in Austria Sedmitsa.RU, 25.10.2011. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/2551996.html (accessed 10.01.2 021).
  15. In Basel, atheists demand to remove the lighting of the Catholic Church. Sedmitsa.RU, 15.09.2014. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/5073381.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  16. A More Secular Europe, Divided by the Cross. The New York Times, 17.06.2013. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/18/world/europe/a-more-secular-europe-divided-by-the-cross.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  17. Luxmoore J. Anti-Catholic climate worsens in France. The Tablet, 21.032019. Available at: https://www.thetablet.co.uk/news/11475/anti-catholic-climate-worsens-in-france- (accessed 10.01.2021).
  18. Furman D.E. Religion and social conflicts in USA. Moscow, Nauka, 1981. 256 p. (In Russ.)
  19. Douthat R. Can Liberal Christianity Be Saved? The New York Times, 14.07.2012. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/15/opinion/sunday/douthat-can-liberal-christianity-be-saved.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  20. Haskell D. Liberal churches are dying. But conservative churches are thriving. The Washington Post, 04.01.2017. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/01/04/liberal-churches-are-dying-but-conservative-churches-are-thriving/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  21. Burke D. The Methodist Church will probably split in two over homosexuality, and that’s bad for all of us. CNN, 17.01.2020. Available at: https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/17/us/united-methodist-church-split-christianity/index.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  22. The Catholic church in America is as politically divided as the country. The Economist, 08.09.2018. Available at: https://www.economist.com/united-states/2018/09/06/the-catholic-church-in-america-is-as-politically-divided-as-the-country (accessed 10.01.2021).
  23. North American Baptist Covenant. Guided Bible Studies for Hungry Christians, 25.04.2015. Available at: https://guidedbiblestudies.com/?p=2765 (accessed 10.01.2021).
  24. Liberal Baptists unite to change conservative image. East Bay Times, 30.06.2007. Available at: https://www.eastbaytimes.com/2007/06/30/liberal-baptists-unite-to-change-conservative-image/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  25. Confederate monuments’ removal praised by Southern Baptists. Baptist Press, 08.06.2020. Available at: https://www.brnow.org/news/confederate-monuments-removal-praised-by-southern-baptists/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  26. McCaughan P. Episcopalians say Trump’s DACA decision is not the last word. Episcopal News Servis (ENS), 05.09.2017. Available at: https://www.episcopalnewsservice.org/2017/09/05/episcopalians-say-trumps-daca-decision-is-not-the-last-word/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  27. The Evangelical Church of Brazil called the coronavirus scare “Satan’s tactics” and opposed self-isolation. TV BRICS, 19.05.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://tvbrics.com/shows/brics-doma-evangelicheskaya-tserkov-brazilii-nazvala-paniku-iz-za-koronavirusa-taktikoy-satany-i-vys/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  28. In Sweden, a lesbian bishop called for the removal of crosses from churches so as not to offend Muslims. Sedmitsa.RU, 08.10.2015. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/5926673.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  29. Silence of the pastors. Der Spiegel, 27.09.2018. (In Russ.) Available at: https://inosmi.ru/longread/20180927/243342357.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  30. Faustova M. Pope Francis has stopped the cardinals ‘plot against the “world government”. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 19.05.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.ng.ru/facts/2020-05-19/9_486_conspiracy.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  31. Poles may be too conservative for the pope. Kommersant”, 30.07.2016. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3052497 (accessed 10.01.2021).
  32. Pope Francis questions Donald Trump’s Christianity. BBC NEWS, 18.02.2016. Available at: Pope Francis questions Donald Trump's Christianity - BBC News (accessed 10.01.2021).
  33. Gurkin S. Bishops against Salvini. Pre-election debate about Christianity in the EU. REGNUM, 21.05.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://regnum.ru/news/society/2632727.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  34. German bishops have announced the start of a “synodal process” on celibacy and sexual morality. Sedmitsa.RU, 16.03.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.sedmitza.ru/text/8780505.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  35. The new head of the Catholic Episcopate of Germany supports the recognition of homosexuality as the norm. Sedmitsa.RU, 23.04.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/9727848.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  36. La Croix (France): theologian Anne Soupa claims to be Archbishop of Lyon. La Croix, 26.05.2020. (In Russ.) Available at: https://inosmi.ru/social/20200526/247493928.html (accessed 10.01.2021).
  37. “Save Catholic church” by lifting ban on female priests, activists say. The Guardian, 22.10.2019. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/22/catholic-church-lift-ban-on-female-priests-activists-say (accessed 10.01.2021).
  38. White Ch. Protestors seek female ordination during Women’s Day march in New York. CRUX, 10.03.2020. Available at: https://cruxnow.com/church-in-the-usa/2020/03/protestors-seek-female-ordination-during-womens-day-march-in-new-york/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  39. Church of England under pressure to publicly oppose Labour and Lib Dem plans to liberalise abortion laws. The Telegrapf, 12.07.2019. Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/12/07/church-england-pressure-publicly-oppose-labour-lib-dem-plans/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  40. Turcescu L., Stan L. Religion, Politics and Sexuality in Romania. Europe-Asia Studies, 2005, vol. 57 no. 2, pp. 291-310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09668130500051924
  41. A Report on the Homosexuality Debate in the Orthodox Church of Finland. ., 15.01.2010. Available at: https://antimodern.wordpress.com/2010/01/15/finn-2/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  42. A little Athos in the Finnish forest. Vodazhivaya, 10.07.2015. (In Russ.) Available at: http://aquaviva.ru/journal/nemnogo-afona-v-finskom-lesu (accessed 10.01.2021).
  43. About the Orthodox Christian Studies Center. Fordham University, 10.01.2020. Available at: https://www.fordham.edu/info/23002/about_the_orthodox_christian_studies_center (accessed 10.01.2021).
  44. Papanikolaou A. “Orthodox morality” on sex or an ethics of sex? Part two: a theology of the erotic. Public Orthodoxy, 20.09.2018. Available at: https://publicorthodoxy.org/2019/11/06/theology-of-the-erotic/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  45. Elsner R. The Russian Orthodox Church and coronavirus rethinking the question of “relevance to the system”. Public Orthodoxy, 05.11.2020. Available at: https://publicorthodoxy.org/2020/05/11/russian-orthodox-church-and-coronavirus/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  46. Papanikolaou A., Demacopoulos G. Orthodox Christianity, systematic racism and the wrong side of history. Public Orthodoxy, 06.04.2020. Available at: https://publicorthodoxy.org/2020/06/04/orthodox-christianity-systemic-racism-and-the-wrong-side-of-history/#more‑6998 (accessed 10.01.2021).
  47. Papanikolaou A. Being christian during a Trump presidency. Public Orthodoxy, 11.11.2016. Available at: https://publicorthodoxy.org/2016/11/11/christian-during-trump-presidency/ (accessed 10.01.2021).
  48. Lunkin R.N. The struggle between Church and government in Montenegro: Games of authoritarian nationalism. Nauchno-analiticheskii vestnik IE RAN, 2020, no. 1, pp. 100-107. (In Russ.) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/vestnikieran12020100107
  1. Lunkin R.N. Mechanisms of religious response to the coronavirus pandemic. Nauchno-analiticheskii vestnik IE RAN, 2020, no. 2, pp. 104-109. (In Russ.) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15211/vestnikieran22020104109

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Lunkin R., Filatov S. Christian Churches and the Antiidentist Revolution. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, No 8, pp. 97-108. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-8-97-108



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2023, vol. 67, No. 2
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Critical Materials’ Supply Chains and US National Security 
  • Civilizational Challenges to Russia’s Sustainable Development  
  • Latin America: in Search of Own Way 
  • On Certain Research Approaches to the World Information and Communication Order 
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.