From Rethinking the Soviet Model to Searchinhg for Chinas Path

184
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-7-45-55
O. Borokh (borokh@hotmail.com), 
Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (IDV RAN), 32, Nakhimovskii Prosp., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation;
A. Lomanov (a_lomanov@hotmail.com), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation

Received 25.04.2021.

Abstract. The article is focused on the evolution of the approaches of the Communist Party of China’s leadership to the Soviet model; it analyzes changing accents in its understanding that dominated in different periods, and the normative conclusions made from critical understanding of the Soviet experience. In 1956, Mao Zedong called to “take the USSR as a mirror” and underscored the importance of national specifics in modernization process. Since the late 1970s, Deng Xiaoping considered the Soviet model completely outdated and ineligible to any improvement, his reforms policy excluded any possibility of China’s return to the Soviet patterns. He solved the task of taking lesson from the “Soviet warning” in economy by abandoning high centralization and rigid planning. Since the 1990s, the themes of stability of party power, amassing public support, and ability of the ruling party to respond decisively to serious crises, occupied an increasingly prominent place in the Chinese debates on the Soviet lessons. Under Xi Jinping, the attention focused on the influences of the loss of political convictions by the party members and of the spread of “historical nihilism” on the collapse of the USSR and the downfall of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The focus in rethinking of the Soviet model shifted to the spheres of control over administrative power, institutionalization of rights, fight against corruption, modernization of the governance system. The chain of continuity of China’s development course is built around the theses about the priority of national specifics and a critical attitude towards foreign experience. It is concluded that during the period of reforms, the development of market economy in China went far beyond the original framework of Soviet centralized planned economy. In the political sphere, Soviet lessons keep their relevance and serve as a justification for the course of strengthening the ideological cohesion of the ruling party. 

Keywords: Communist Party of China, Soviet experience, Mao Zedong, economic reforms, Deng Xiaoping, state governance, Xi Jinping


REFERENCES

  1. Wu Lengxi. Ten-Year War of Words, 1956–1966, a Memoir of Sino-Soviet Relations. Beijing, CC CPC Party Literature Publishing House, 1999. 946 p. (In Chin.)
  2. Chronicle of Mao Zedong (1949–1976). Vol. 2. Beijing, CC CPC Party Literature Publishing House, 2013. 643 p. (In Chin.)
  3. Selected Works of Mao Zedong. Vol. 5. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1977. 500 p. (In Chin.)
  4. Shen Zhihua. A Short History of Sino-Soviet Relations, 1917–1991. Ser. China Connections. Singapore, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. XV, 418 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-8641-1
  5. PRC: Short History Outline (1949–1979). Moscow, Political Publishing House, 1980. 206 p. (In Russ.)
  6. Chronicle of Mao Zedong (1949–1976). Vol. 3. Beijing, CC CPC Party Literature Publishing House, 2013. 658 p. (In Chin.)
  7. Peng Bo, Zhen Derong. “Taking the Soviet Union as a Mirror”: Exploring the Historical Logical Starting Point of the Road to Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Studies on Marxism, 2016, no. 2, pp. 89-93. (In Chin.)
  8. Wang Jinfen. The Factor of Soviet Union in the Process of Sinicization of Marxism during 70 years since the Founding of New China. The Journal of Humanities, 2019, no. 10, pp. 16-22. (In Chin.)
  9. Wang Shuguang, Wang Danli. China in Reform: The Economic History of the PRC (National Governance Book Series). Beijing, Commercial Press, 2019. 427 p. (In Chin.)
  10. Zheng Yongfeng. The Historical Cause, Evolution Process and Realistic Enlightenment of Taking the Soviet Union as a Mirror. Journal of Liaoning Normal University (Social Science Edition), 2020, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 16-21. (In Chin.)
  11. Xi Jinping. Several Questions on Adhering to and Developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Qiushi, 2019, no. 7. (In Chin.) Available at: http:// www.qstheory.cn/dukan/qs/2019-04/01/c_1124307480.htm (accessed 20.04.2021).
  12. Chronicle of Deng Xiaoping (1975–1997). Part 1. Beijing, CC CPC Party Literature Publishing House, 2004. 701 p. (In Chin.)
  13. Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping. Vol. 2. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1994. 446 p. (In Chin.)
  14. Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping. Vol. 3. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1993. 418 p. (In Chin.)
  15. Selected Works of Jiang Zemin. Vol. 2. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 2006. 591 p. (In Chin.)
  16. Selected Works of Jiang Zemin. Vol. 3. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 2006. 608 p. (In Chin.)
  17. Selected Works of Hu Jintao. Vol. 3. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 2016. 660 p. (In Chin.)
  18. Zhou Xincheng. There Should Be No Historical Nihilistic Attitude towards the Soviet Model of Socialism – Discussion with Professor Zuo Fengrong. Studies on Marxism, 2013, no. 7, pp. 120-129. (In Chin.)
  19. Xi Jinping. Advancement of the New Great Project of Party Building Must Be Consistent. Qiushi, 2019, no. 19. (In Chin.) Available at: http://www.qstheory.cn/dukan/qs/2019-10/02/c_1125068596.htm (accessed 20.04.2021).
  20. Dong Ying. State Governing System Affects the Success of Socialism: from “Russia as a Teacher” to “Soviet Union as a Mirror”. Journal of China Executive Leadership Academy Yan’an, 2014, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 115-121. (In Chin.)
  21. The Necessity, Inevitability and Urgency of Transformation. People’s Tribune, 2013, no. 16, pp. 14-21. (In Chin.)
  22. Xu Yuangong. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Important Exposition on the Causes of the Collapse of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Communist Party and Their Practical Significance. Studies on Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping Theories, 2019, no. 9, pp. 7-14. (In Chin.)
  23. Xi Jinping on the Governance of China. Beijing, Foreign Languages Press, 2014. 469 p. (In Chin.)
  24. Excerpts from Xi Jinping’s Expositions on Comprehensive Deepening of Reforms. Beijing, CC CPC Party Literature Publishing House, 2014. 153 p. (In Chin.)
  25. Xi Jinping’s Speech at the Symposium on the Work in Philosophy and Social Sciences (17 May 2016). People’s Daily, 19.05.2016. (In Chin.)
  26. Xi Jinping’s Speech at the Conference Commemorating the 200th Anniversary of Marx’s Birth (4 May 2018). People’s Daily, 05.05.2018. (In Chin.)]
  27. Liu Qibao. Speech at the Theoretical Seminar “October Revolution and Socialism with Chinese Characteristics” (26 September 2017). People’s Daily, 27.09.2017. (In Chin.)
  28. Selected Works of Mao Zedong. Vol. 4. Beijing, People’s Publishing House, 1967. 1454 p. (In Chin.)

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Borokh O., Lomanov A. From Rethinking the Soviet Model to Searchinhg for Chinas Path. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 45-55. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-7-45-55



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.