New Tendencies of Political Parties Transformation in the Era of Globalization and Digital Technologies on the Example of Europe

82
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-5-28-38
B. Guseletov (bguseletov@mail.ru),
Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences (IE RAS), 11–3, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation

Received 30.10.2020.

Abstract. The article examines the processes of formation and institutionalization of pan-European parties (Europarties) as a new institution in the party-political system of the European Union. This institution emerged relatively recently in the mid‑1970s, on the eve of the first European elections in 1979. The main stages of institutionalization of European parties and their factions in the European Parliament are presented. The article shows the key differences between this type of a party and traditional political parties as well as the way relations between the European parties and national parties from the EU member states are developing. It analyzes the current state of these parties and the impact of the most important challenges that the European Union has faced in the last decade: the global financial and economic crisis, the migration crisis in Europe, Brexit, and the coronavirus pandemic. The article considers the legal basis for ensuring the functioning of these parties, which is contained in the Lisbon Treaty, and a number of other fundamental acts of the European Union regulating the activities of its political system. The results of the 2014 and 2019 pan-European parliamentary elections are analyzed; it is shown how positions of the leading European parties represented in the European Parliament have changed. The reasons for the change in the electoral results of these parties, including the growing popularity of Eurosceptic parties, are indicated. It is noted to which EU member states the most popular European parties belong, and what the reason for this distribution is. The article presents new trends in the development of the Institute of European parties associated with an active use of new communication technologies in party building, as well as the emergence of a new type of European parties that advocate the federalization of the European Union.

Keywords: political parties, European Union, European political space, European parties, Euro optimists, Eurosceptics, Cyberparty


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For citation:
Guseletov B. New Tendencies of Political Parties Transformation in the Era of Globalization and Digital Technologies on the Example of Europe . World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 28-38. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-5-28-38



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