Coronacrisis in the EU: a knock-down or a jump-off for integration?

153
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-4-42-49
Institute of Economics of the Ural Branch of RAS, Moskovskaya Str., 29, Ekaterinburg, 620014, Russian Federation

Received 25.10.2020.

Abstract. The spread of the new coronavirus infection and the ensuing lock-down dealt a devastating blow to the EU economy. The depth of the crisis, as well as the difficulties of developing a common recovery program, put under question the EU ability to overcome this challenge. As long as the first wave of COVID‑19 is over, the stage of urgent measures responding to unexpected threats is over, the long-term anti-crisis program is negotiated, it is possible and necessary to summarize the interim results of the impact of the COVID‑19 outbreak on the European economy. The purpose of this article is not only to assess the impact of the first wave of the pandemic on the European economy and systematize the anti-crisis measures taken, but also to analyze the role of the coronacrisis in the further development of the EU through the prism of the main integration theories. The study revealed that the coronavirus crisis has not (yet) brought the European integration to its final. Faced to a huge threat to security and well-being, European leaders managed to negotiate a recovery plan. The disadvantages of the deal are the risk of erosion of the supranational governance and the threat of politicization due to belated decisions with limited potential. However, the majority of EU citizens still support further strengthening of the integration. To maintain this momentum, it is important to quickly finalize the mechanisms for implementing the recovery program in order to reduce public discontent and prevent the replacement of supranational governance by intergovernmental interaction.

Keywords: the European Union, crisis, coronavirus, neofunctionalism, intergovernmentalism, postfunctionalism


REFERENCES

1. Regional organizations: the logic of development. St. Peterburg, CII EABR, 2016. 88 p. (In Russ.)

2. Arbatova N. Budushhee evropeiskoi integracii v kontekste vnutrennikh i vneshnikh krizisov [Future of European integration in the context of internal and external crises]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 57-65. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-10-57-65

3. Khesin E. Ekonomika Evropeiskogo soyuza: itogi postkrizisnogo desyatiletiya [Economy of the European Union: a decade after the crisis]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 73-81. Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-1-73-81

4. White Paper on the Future of Europe. Reflections and Scenarios for the EU‑27 by 2025. COM(2017)2025. Brussels, EU, 01.03.2017.

5. Maher R. International Relations Theory and the Future of European Integration. International Studies Review, 2019. DOI: 10.1093/isr/viaa010

6. European Economic Forecast. Spring 2020. Institutional Paper 125, May 2020. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/economy-finance/ip125_en.pdf (accessed 20.08.2020).

7. Schmitter P. A Revised Theory of Regional Integration. International Organization, 1970, no. 24, pp. 836-868. DOI: 10.1017/S0020818300017549

8. Niemann A., Lefkofridi Z., Schmitter P. Neofunctionalism. European Integration Theory. Wiener A., Borzel T.A., Risse T., eds. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 43-63.

9. Schimmelfennig F. European Integration (Theory) in Times of Crisis. A Comparison of the Euro and Schengen Crises. Journal of European Public Policy, 2018, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 969-989. DOI: 10.1080/13501763.2017.1421252

10. Pierson P. The Path to European Integration. A Historical Institutionalist Analysis. Comparative Political Studies, 1996, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 123-163. DOI: 10.1177/0010414096029002001

11. De Wilde P. No Polity for Old Politics? A Framework for Analyzing the Politicization of European Integration. Journal of European Integration, 2011, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 559-575. DOI: 10.1080/07036337.2010.546849

12. Hooghe L., Marks G. A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: from Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus. British Journal of Political Science, 2009, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1-23. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123408000409

13. Moravcsik A. Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach. Journal of Common Market Studies, 1993, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 473-524. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5965.1993.tb00477.x

14. COVID‑19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University. Available at: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html (accessed 20.08.2020).

15. European Economic Forecast. Summer 2020 (Interim). Institutional Paper 132, July 2020. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/economy-finance/ip132_en.pdf (accessed 21.08.2020).

16. Conte A., Lecca P., Sakkas S., Salotti S. The Territorial Economic Impact of COVID‑19 in the EU. A RHOMOLO Analysis. Territorial Development Insight Series, July 2020. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/jrc121261.pdf (accessed 23.08.2020).

17. Di Feo G. Coronavirus: “Francais, ouvrez les yeux sur le drame que vit l’Italie, livree a elle-meme!” Le Figaro, Mars 15, 2020. Available at: https://www.lefigaro.fr/vox/monde/coronavirus-francais-ouvrez-les-yeux-sur-le-drame-que-vit-l-italie-livree-a-elle-meme-20200315 (accessed 05.08.2020).

18. European Council on Foreign Relations EU Solidarity Tracker. Available at: https://www.ecfr.eu/solidaritytracker (accessed 20.08.2020).

19. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID‑19) Dashboard. Available at: https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed 26.08.2020).

20. Revoltella D. COVID‑19 Policy Response and the Role of the EIB. SUERF Policy Briefs, May 2020, no. 8. Available at: https://www.suerf.org/docx/f_2bec63f5d312303621583b97ff7c68bf_13167_suerf.pdf (accessed 22.08.2020).

21. Revoltella D., Strauch R., Verwey M. Helping People, Businesses and Countries in Europe. Available at: https://www.esm.europa.eu/blog/helping-people-businesses-and-countries-europe (accessed 22.08.2020).

22. Monetary Policy Decisions. European Central Bank Press Release. June 4, 2020. Available at: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.mp200604~a307d3429c.en.html (accessed 18.08.2020).

23. Recovery Plan for Europe. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/recovery-plan-europe_en (accessed 18.08.2020).

24. COVID‑19: the EU’s Response to the Economic Fallout. Available at: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/coronavirus/covid-19-economy/# (accessed 18.08.2020).

25. Temporary Framework for State Aid Measures to Support the Economy in the Current COVID‑19 Outbreak. Communication from the Commission, C(2020) 1863. Brussels, EU, 19.03.2020.

26. Communication from the Commission to the Council on the Activation of the General Escape Clause of the Stability and Growth Pact, COM(2020) 123. Brussels, EU, 20.03.2020.

27. Amending Regulation (EU) no. 1303/2013, Regulation (EU) no. 1301/2013 and Regulation (EU) no.508/2014 as Regards Specific Measures to Mobilise Investments in the Health Care Systems of the Member States and in Other Sectors of Their Economies in Response to the COVID‑19 Outbreak [Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative], Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council. COM/2020/113 final. Brussels, EU, 13.03.2020.

28. Increase of Payment Appropriations for the Emergency Support Instrument to Finance the COVID‑19 Vaccines Strategy and for the Impact of the Corona Response Investment Initiative Plus. Draft Amending Budget 8 to the General Budget 2020, COM/2020/900 final. Brussels, EU, 28.08.2020.

29. Jobs and Economy during the Coronavirus Pandemic. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/live-work-travel-eu/health/coronavirus-response/jobs-and-economy-during-coronavirus-pandemic_en (accessed 16.08.2020).

30. Conclusions of the Extraordinary European Council Meeting of 17–21 July 2020. European Parliament Resolution. 2020/2732(RSP). Brussels, EU, 23.07.2020.

31. Bordachev T. Magicheskii shar evropeiskoi integratsii: chto dal’she? [Magic ball of European integration: what’s next?] Available at: https://globalaffairs.ru/articles/magicheskij-shar-evro/?fbclid=IwAR1mJ0TWQQesLLzDbRIIoaaIFjqseHlp8aWpI6uhsTNalsNJ00GsF9bMafo (accessed 20.08.2020).

32. Darvas Z. Having the Cake, but Slicing It Differently: how Is the Grand EU Recovery Fund Allocated? Bruegel, July 23, 2020. Available at: https://www.bruegel.org/2020/07/having-the-cake-how-eu-recovery-fund/ (accessed 20.08.2020).

33. Varoufakis Y. The EU Coronavirus Fund Will Take Europe another Step to Disintegration. The Guardian, July 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/commentisfree/2020/jul/24/eu-coronavirus-fund-europe-recovery-package (accessed 03.08.2020).

34. Public Opinion Monitoring at a Glance in the Time of COVID‑19. May 27, 2020. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/at-your-service/files/be-heard/eurobarometer/2020/covid19/en-public-opinion-in-the-time-of-COVID19-27052020.pdf (accessed 20.08.2020).

35. Krastev I., Leonard M. Europe’s Pandemic Politics: how the Virus Has Changed the Public’s Overview. European Council of Foreign Relations, ECFR/326, June 2020. Available at: https://www.ecfr.eu/page/-/europes_pandemic_politics_how_the_virus_has_changed_the_publics_worldview.pdf (accessed 29.08.2020).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Chupina D. Coronacrisis in the EU: a knock-down or a jump-off for integration?. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 42-49. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-4-42-49



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.