Right Wing Populist Civic Movements: Western Experience and the Situation in Russia

45
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-3-120-129
A. Mitrofanova (anastasia-mit@mail.ru), 
Institute of Sociology, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 24/35, bld. 5, 117218, Moscow, Russian Federation.
O. Mikhailenok (m-oleg-m@yandex.ru), 
Institute of Sociology, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krzhizhanovskogo Str., 24/35, bld. 5, 117218, Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article aims at identifying the characteristics shared by the right-wing populist civil movements of Western Europe and the USA and evaluating the possibility to use them for researching right-wing nationalist organizations in Russia. The movements selected for the comparison range from party-like electoral actors to unorganized protesters. They include as follows: The Five-star Movement (Italy), PEGIDA and the like (Germany), the English Defence League (the UK), the Tea Party Movement (the US). The authors identified several interrelated characteristics shared by these movements: (1) dealing with local, usually social, issues, (2) network-like structure of autonomous local groups building the agenda from below, (3) ideological ambivalence leading to replacing ideology with subculture, (4) digitalization of activism. Although in Russia there are no civic movements structurally or functionally identical to Western right-wing populists, the authors demonstrate that local social issues and civic responsibility have become important topics for some Russian nationalists (right-wing radicals) since the mid 2000s. The trends of deideologization and dealing with non-political local issues are researched mainly on the example of the “Frontier of the North” (Komi Republic). The authors conclude that some of the radical Russian nationalists are gradually declining their own independent agenda, following local protests instead. This opens up the possibility for right-wing organizations to become local civil society institutions and to participate successfully in local elections, similar to the “electoral break-through” of right-wing populists in the West. Although it is too early to speak about the deideologization of Russian nationalism, the article suggests that some nationalists are ready to mitigate ideological tensions to secure expanded social support. At the moment, nationalist organizations in Russia remain frozen between right-wing radicalism and emulating Western right-wing populism. 

Keywords: right-wing populism, civic movements, Russian nationalism, right-wing movements, deideologization, network movements, digitalization


REFERENCES

  1. Wodak R., Khosravinik M. Dynamics of Discourse and Politics in Right-wing Populism in Europe and Beyond: an Introduction. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. Wodak R., Khosravinik M., Mral B., eds. London, Bloomsbury Press, 2013, pp. XVII-XXVIII.
  2. Funke H., Rensmann L. Novyi pravyi populizm v Evrope: sravnitel’nyi analiz politicheskikh partii i dvizhenii [New Right-wing Populism in Europe: Comparative Analysis of Political Parties and Movements]. Aktual’nye problemy Evropy, 2004, no. 2, pp. 75-76.
  3. Pogorel’skaya S.V. Metodologicheskie problemy issledovaniya pravogo radikalizma. Vvedenie [Methodological Issues of Studying Right-wing Radicalism. An Introduction]. Pravyi radikalizm v sovremennoi Evrope [Right-wing radicalism in modern Europe]. Pogorel’skaya S.V., ed. Moscow, INION RAS, 2004, pp. 6-15.
  4. Jackson P. The Rise of the English Defence League as a Social Movement. The EDL: Britain’s “New Far Right” Social Movement. Jackson P., ed. Northampton, RNM Publications, 2011, pp. 14-31.
  5. Mudde K. Populistskie pravoradikal’nye partii v sovremennoi Evrope [Populist Right-wing Radical Parties in Contemporary Europe]. Bereginya 777. Sova: Obshchestvo. Politika, 2014, no. 4, pp. 91-100.
  6. Meleagrou-Hitchens A., Brun H. A Neo-Nationalist Network: The English Defence League and Europe’s Counter-Jihad Movement. London, The International Centre for the Study of Radicalism and Political Violence, 2013. 68 p.
  7. Oskolkov P.V., Tevdoi- Bourmuli A.I. Evropeiskii pravyi populizm i natsionalizm: k voprosu o sootnoshenii funkcionala [European Right-wing Populism and Nationalism: the Issue of Functional Correlation]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Politologiya, 2018, no. 3, pp. 19-33.
  8. Vorländer H., Herold M., Schäller S. PEGIDA and New Right-Wing Populism in Germany. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 212 p.
  9. Vainshtein G. Evropeiskii populizm v kontse 2010-kh [European Populism in the End of 2010s]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2018, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 29-38. DOI: 10.2542/0131-2227-2018- 62-3-29-38
  10. Shcherbakov V.Yu. Dvizhenie grazhdanskikh initsiativ FRG v nachale XXI v.: povorot vpravo? [Civil initiatives’ Movement in West Germany in the beginning of the 21st Century: Turn to the Right?] Gumanitarnye i yuridicheskie issledovaniya, 2017, iss. 3, pp. 123-127.
  11. Semenenko I.S. O prirode politicheskikh izmenenii v global’nom mire i podhodakh k ikh analizu [On the Nature of the Political Changes in the Global World and on Approaches to their Analysis]. Politicheskie izmeneniya v global’nom mire: teoretiko-metodologicheskie problemy analiza i prognozirovaniya [Political Changes in the Global World: Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Analysis and Prognostication]. Semenenko I.S., Lapkin V.V., Pantin V.I., eds. Moscow, IMEMO, 2014, pp. 5-19.
  12. Canetti E. Massa i vlast’ [Crowds and Power]. Moscow, Ad Marginem, 1997. 528 p.
  13. Bol’shova N.N. “PEGIDA” kak primer massovykh protestnykh dvizhenii, voznikshikh v Evrope pod vliyaniem migracionnogo krizisa [PEGIDA as an Example of Mass Protest Movements that Emerged in Europe under the Influence of the Migration Crisis]. Polis. Political Studies, 2016, no. 3, pp. 123-137.
  14. Gluhova A.V. Populizm kak politicheskii fenomen: vyzov sovremennoi demokratii [Populism as a Political Phenomenon: the Challenge for Contemporary Democracy]. Polis. Political Studies, 2017, no. 4, pp. 49-68.
  15. Holzer J., Mareš M., Laryš M. Militant Right-Wing Extremism in Putin’s Russia: Legacies, Forms and Threats. London and New York, Routledge, 2019. 292 p.
  16. Macklin G. Transnational Networking on the Far Right: The Case of Britain and Germany. West European Politics, 2013, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 176-198.
  17. Braouezec K. Identifying Common Patterns of Discourse and Strategy among the New Extremist Movements in Europe: The Case of the English Defence League and the Bloc Identitaire. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 2016, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 637-648.
  18. Busher J. Grassroots Activism in the English Defence League: Discourse and Public (Dis)order. Extreme Right Wing Political Violence and Terrorism. Taylor M., Holbrook D., Currie P. M., eds. London, etc., Bloomsbury, 2013, pp. 65-83.
  19. Biancalana C. From Social Movements to Institutionalization: the Five-star Movement and the High-speed Train Line in Val di Susa. Contemporary Italian Politics, 2020, pp. 2-14. DOI: 10.1080/23248823.2020.1743469
  20. Grattan L. Populism’s Power: Radical Grassroots Democracy in America. New York, Oxford University Press, 2016. 304 p.
  21. Pilkington H. Loud and Proud: Passion and Politics in the English Defence League. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2016. 272 p.
  22. Busher J. The Making of Anti-Muslim Protest: Grassroots Activism in the English Defence League. London, Routledge, 2015. 196 p.
  23. Meadowcroft J., Morrow E. A. Violence, Self-Worth, Solidarity and Stigma: How a Dissident, Far-Right Group Solves the Collective Action Problem. Political Studies, 2017, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 373-390.
  24. Bme von K. Populizm i pravyi ekstremizm v partiinykh sistemakh epokhi postmoderna [Populism and Right-wing Extremism in the Party Systems of the Post-modern Era]. Bereginya 777. Sova: Obshchestvo. Politika, 2014, no. 4, pp. 101-109.
  25. Allen C. Opposing Islamification or Promoting Islamophobia? Understanding the English Defence League. Patterns of Prejudice, 2011, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 279-294.
  26. Virchow F. Creating a European (Neo-Nazi) Movement by Joint Political Action? Comparative Perspective Varieties of Right-Wing Extremism in Europe. Mammone A., Codin E., Jenkins B., eds. London, Routledge, 2013, pp. 197-213.
  27. Vignati R. Beppe Grillo and the Movimento 5 Stelle: A Brief History of a ‘Leaderist’ Movement with a Leaderless Ideology. Beppe Grillo’s Five Star Movement: Organisation, Communication and Ideology. Tronconi F., ed. New York, Routledge, 2015, pp. 9-28.
  28. Lanzone M. The “Post-Modern” Populism in Italy: The Case of the Five Star Movement. The Many Faces of Populism: Current Perspectives. Woods D., Wejnert B., eds. Bingley, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2014, pp. 53-78.
  29. Mudde C. The Paradox of the Anti-Party Party: Insights from the Extreme Right. Party Politics, 1996, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 265-276.
  30. Mosca L. Democratic Vision and Online Participatory Spaces in the Italian Movimento 5 Stelle. Acta politica, 2018, no. 55, pp. 1-18.
  31. Disch L. Tea Party Movement: The American “Precariat”? Representation, 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 123-135.
  32. Klupt M. Sotsial’naya baza i perspektivy populizma v stranakh Zapada [Social Foundation and Perspectives of Populism in Western Countries]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 47-55. DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-3-47-55
  33. Vampa D. Local Representative Democracy and Protest Politics: the Case of the Five-star Movement. Contemporary Italian Politics, 2015, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 232-250.
  34. Burghart D., Zeskind L. Tea Party Nationalism: A Critical Examination of the Tea Party Movement and the Size, Scope and Focus of its National Factions. Kansas City, MO, Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights, 2010. 94 p.
  35. Zúquete J.P. “Free the People”: The Search for “True Democracy” in Western Europe’s Far-Right Political Culture. The Promise and Perils of Populism: Global Perspectives. de la Torre C., ed. Lexington, University Press of Kentucky, 2015, pp. 231-264.
  36. Kuzmin A.G., Mitrofanova A.V. Russian Nationalists in the Komi Republic: a Case Study of the Frontier of the North. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 2017, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 238-255.
  37. Shies – an Example of People’s Power. #ElenaRokhlina. Telekanal Spets, 17.07.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggrG1e7U_ls (accessed 06.05.2020).
  38. Al’perovich V. Krasno-korichnevyi – khit sezona. Publichnaya aktivnost ultrapravykh grupp. Zima–vesna 2018–2019 godov [Red-brown – the hit of the season. Public activity of the far right groups. Winter – spring 2018–2019]. Informatsionno-analiticheskii tsentr “Sova”, 09.07.2019. Available at: https://www.sova-center.ru/racism-xenophobia/publications/2019/07/d41236/ (accessed 06.05.2020).
  39. “Today You are for Russians, Tomorrow – Russians for You” – Elena Rokhlina spoke about the Russian March, about the Unity of Protest Forces. Protestnaya Rossiya, 13.10.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://narod.one/articles/23-segodnya-ty-za-russkikh-a-zavtra-russkie-za-tebya-elena-rokhlina-o-russkom-marshe-i-ob-obedinenii-protestnykh-sil_13102019 (accessed 06.05.2020).
  40. Russian March in Moscow. Live. PDS NPSR, 04.11.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://pdsnpsr.ru/articles/10025-russkij-marsh-2019-v-moskve_04112019 (accessed 22.12.2020).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Mitrofanova A., Mikhailenok O. Right Wing Populist Civic Movements: Western Experience and the Situation in Russia. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, No 3, pp. 120-129. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-3-120-129



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 11
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Developing Countries in the New Equation of the Post-Crisis World Order 
  • U.S. Public Diplomacy as a Tool for “Political Warfare” 
  • Central Europe: Possible Scenarios
  • The Collapse of the Global Consumption Model: in Search of Sustainability
  • Future Wars in Light of the Past Experience
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.