"Unipolar Asia": Chinese Regional Order

82
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-3-23-32
A. Vinogradov (vinogradov-a.v@mail.ru), 
Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MGIMO University), 76, Vernadskogo Prosp., Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation

Acknowledgements. The research was supported by a grant from the Russian science Foundation (project no. 19-18-00142). 


Abstract. In recent years, the PRC was considered to be the main revisionist power in the world, challenging the leadership of the United States. The rivalry between the two countries in various fields was the subject of close attention of both politicians and scientists. Depending on how this rivalry would end, forecasts were made about the future of the system of international relations. Today it has become obvious that an equally serious challenge to the existing international order is posed by the economic and political crisis of the Western world, which cannot be overcome in the foreseeable future. The question of what kind of international order can replace the current one is gradually moving from a theoretical level to a practical one. As a rule, it is pointed out the multipolar nature of the coming world political order, but how this fundamentally new structure will function in practice remains unclear. The article emphasizes the following questions: What are the characteristics of the Chinese version of the multipolarity, does it have historical analogs, what are traditional Chinese ideas about the world structure and China’s interaction with neighbors, it also argues how useful they can be in contemporary world, in the formation of a new world and regional order. The focus is on China’s relations with neighboring powers, with developing countries and great powers, primarily the United States, as well as the problem of combining world-building functions and international order, which is embodied in Xi Jinping’s concept “Community of common destiny of mankind” and particularly in the Belt and Road Initiative. As a result of its practical implementation, for the first time in world history, two traditions can claim to regulate global relations – Western and Eastern, reflecting different ideas about the world order and organization of international community and having their own ideas about justice. 

Keywords: China, international order, world-pattern functions, Belt and Road Initiative, center and periphery, great powers, peripheral diplomacy of the PRC


REFERENCES

  1. Grachikov E.N. Geopolitika Kitaya: Egotsentrizm i prostranstvo setei [Geopolitics of China: Egocentrism and Space of Networks]. Moscow, Rusains, 2015. 234 p.
  2. Sun Yat-sen. Tri narodnykh printsipa i budushchee Kitaya [Three Principles of the People and the Future of China]. Sun Yat-sen. Izbrannye proizvedeniya [Selected works]. Moscow, Nauka, 1985, pp. 110-120.
  3. Bogaturov A. Mezhdunarodnyi poryadok v nastupivshem veke [International Order at the Turn of the XXI Century]. International Trends, 2003, no. 1, pp. 6-23.
  4. Degterev D.A. Mnogopolyarnyi miroporyadok: starye mify i novye realii [Multipolar World Order: Old Myths and New Realities]. Vestnik RUDN. International Relations, 2019, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 404-419. DOI: 10.22363/2313-0660-2019-19-3-404-419
  5. Womack B. Asymmetry and International Relationships. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016. 244 p.
  6. Deng Xiaoping’s Speech at the 6th Special Session UN General Assembly. People’s Daily, 11.04.1974. (In Chin.)]
  7. Hu Jintao’s Report at the 18th Congress of CPC. Rossiya i Kitai, 30.11.2012. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.ruchina.org/china-article/china/61.html (accessed 14.09.2020).
  8. Mamonov M. Inertsiya i novatsii vo vneshnei politike Kitaya [Change and Continuity in China’s Foreign Policies]. International Trends, 2010, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 40-56.
  9. Borokh O., Lomanov A. Kitaiskii put’ reform v usloviyakh globalizatsii [China’s Path of Reform Under Conditions of Globalization]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 66-75. DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-6-66-75
  10. Zhang Chun. Competition over Provision of International Public Goods and Paths Forward: Polarizing Dynamics in the Asia Pacific Region and the Building of a New Type of Great Power Relationship between China and the U.S. Journal of Contemporary Asia Pacific Studies, 2014, no. 6, pp. 52-72. (In Chin.)
  11. Hu Jintao’ Speech at the UN 60th Anniversary Summit (Full Text). 16.09.2005. (In Chin.) Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gjhdqzz_681964/lhg_681966/zyjh_681976/t212365.shtml (accessed 14.09.2020).
  12. Kuznetsov A.V., ed. Fenomen Trampa [Trump Phenomenon]. Moscow, INION RAN, 2020. 642 p.
  13. Kissinger H. Kak skonstruirovat’ novyi mirovoi poryadok [How to create New World Order]. Russia in Global Affairs, 02.09.2014. Available at: https://globalaffairs.ru/articles/kak-skonstruirovat-novyj-mirovoj-poryadok/ (accessed 14.09.2020).
  14. Luo Jianbo. Responsible Developing Big Power: Chinese Identity and Its International Responsibility. West Asia and Africa, 2014, no. 5, pp. 28-45. (In Chin.)
  15. Ivkina N.V., Trusova A.A., Chernyaev M.S. Kitaiskii podkhod k kontseptsii “amerikanskoi isklyuchitel’nosti” [Chinese approach to conception of American exceptionalism]. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, no. 4, pp. 14-24. DOI: 10.7256/2454-0641.2019.4.31447
  16. Vinogradov A.V. Kitaisko-amerikanskie otnosheniya v kontse prezidentskogo sroka B. Obama [Chinese-American Relations at the End of B. Obama’s Presidency]. Zapad–Vostok–Rossiya 2015. Ezhegodnik. Moscow, IMEMO, 2016, pp. 45-48.
  17. Clinton H. America’s Pacific Century. Foreign Policy, October 11, 2011. Available at: http://foreignpolicy.com/2011/10/11/americas-pacific-century/ (accessed 14.09.2020).
  18. Jin Canrong. How America’s relationship with China changed under Obama. World Economic Forum. December 14, 2016. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/america-china-relationship/ (accessed 14.09.2020).
  19. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State, National Convention Center, Hanoi, Vietnam. July 23, 2010. Available at: https://2009-2017.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2010/07/145095.htm (accessed 14.09.2020).
  20. Xi Jinping. O gosudarstvennom upravlenii [The Governance of China]. Beijing, Izd-vo literatury na inostrannykh yazykakh, 2014. 630 p.
  21. Buzan B. China in International Society: Is “Peaceful Rise” Possible? The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 2010, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5-36.
  22. Xi Jinping and Other Members of the Politburo Standing Committee 18th Central Committee’s Meeting with Chinese and Foreign Journalists (In Chin.) Available at: http://www.gov.cn/ldhd/2012-11/15/content_2266858.htm (accessed 14.09.2020).
  23. Professor of the National Defense University: the Next Aircraft Carrier is Below the Level. Huanqiu wang, 17.12.2012. (In Chin.) Available at: https://mil.huanqiu.com/article/9CaKrnJyd3w (accessed 14.09.2020).
  24. Mokretskii A.Ch. Kitaiskaya diplomatia v epohu Xi Jinpina [Chinese Diplomacy in the era of Xi Jinping]. International Affairs, 2019, no. 3, pp. 29-48. Available at: https://interaffairs.ru/virtualread/ia_rus/32019/files/assets/downloads/publication.pdf (accessed 14.09.2020).
  25. Lomanov A. Vneshnepoliticheskie idei Xi Jinpina [Xi Jinping’s Thoughts on Foreign Policy]. Model’ razvitiya sovremennogo Kitaya. Otsenki, diskussii, prognozy [Model of development of modern China. Ratings, discussions, and forecasts]. Voskresenskii A.D., ed. Moscow, 2019, pp. 55-82.
  26. Luo Jianbo. Why Relations Between China and Developing Countries are so Important? China Investments, 2018, no. 10, pp. 30-32. (In Chin.)
  27. Pu Ping. Transformation of International Organizations in Globalization Era and China’s Strategic Choice. Teaching and Research, 2012, no. 1, pp. 47-54. (In Chin.)
  28. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. December 2017. The White House, Washington, D. Available at: http://nssarchive.us/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/2017.pdf (accessed 14.09.2020).
  29. Bogaturov A.D. Kitaiskii ugol v mirosistemnom upravlenii [The Chinese Angle in the World-system Management]. Polis. Political Studies, 2019, no. 5, pp. 85-95. Available at: https://doi.org/10.17976/jpps/2019.05.07 (accessed 14.09.2020).
  30. Xi Jinping for the First Time Put Forward Asia-Pacific Dream. People’s Net, 09.10.2014. (In Chin.) Available at: http://world.people.com.cn/n/2014/1109/c1002-25998800.html (accessed 14.09.2020).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Vinogradov A. "Unipolar Asia": Chinese Regional Order. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, No 3, pp. 23-32. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-3-23-32



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 11
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Developing Countries in the New Equation of the Post-Crisis World Order 
  • U.S. Public Diplomacy as a Tool for “Political Warfare” 
  • Central Europe: Possible Scenarios
  • The Collapse of the Global Consumption Model: in Search of Sustainability
  • Future Wars in Light of the Past Experience
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.