Vox Spanish Variant of Radical Right Party in Present-Day Europe

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-11-69-78
Moscow State Institute of International Relations, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation (MGIMO University), 76, Vernadskogo Prosp., Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation;
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences (INION RAS), 51/21, Nakhimovskii Prosp., Moscow, 117418, Russian Federation.

Received 19.04.2021.

Abstract. For many years, Spain was one of a few European countries without an influential radical right party. In the recent years, the situation has changed sharply as a marginal right radical party VOX turned into a significant force – a third party in the Cortes according to the number of votes. The stormy take off of VOX cannot be separated from the systemic crisis of the Spanish polity which manifested itself particularly in the Catalan conflict. The threat to territorial integrity gave rise to a sense of impaired national dignity. Spanish nationalism, which seemed to recede into the background of the societal agenda during the first post-Francoist decades, has revived in a more radical guise. VOX advocates militant nationalism and upholds traditional values challenging the liberal paradigm of societal development. By sharply criticizing the liberal democratic regime VOX intends not to dismantle but to reform it. The revision assumes the reinforcement of centralizing and unitary origins in the Spanish state through the abolition of the autonomies’ rights and also the radical restrictions of the rights of ethnic minorities (Catalans, Basques, immigrants). Such standpoint entails the strengthening of authoritarian tendencies in the mass consciousness. At the same time, the party does not stand against the democratic system and does not raise the question on the restoration of authoritarianism in Spain. VOX, therefore, discards some principles of liberal democracy (a number of elements of political pluralism), without rejecting the other (rights and freedoms for the majority of the population).

Keywords: Spain, VOX, liberal paradigm, systemic crisis, nationalism, traditional values, state of autonomies, Catalan conflict, ethnic minorities, People’s Party, Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party, Podemos, Ciudadanos


1. Ortiz Barquero P., Ruiz Jimenez A.M., Gonzalez Fernandez M.T. El caso espanol y sus implicaciones para el estudio de la ultraderecha: antecedentes y nuevas estrategias de investigacion. Revista de estudios politicos, 2020, no. 188, pp. 199-220.

2. Khenkin S. Spain: Modern Trends of Mass Protest. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 73-82. (In Russ.) Available at: https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-9-73-82

3. Rubio-Pueyo V. Vox: una nueva extrema derecha en Espana? New York, Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, 2019. 21 p.

4. Elecciones generales de 2019 en Espana: resultado y ganador. La Vanguardia, 13.10.2019. Available at: https://www.lavanguardia.com/elecciones/elecciones-generales-noviembre-2019 (accessed 20.03.2021).

5. Los resultados dan la victoria al PSC a escasa distancia de ERC y Junts. La Vanguardia, 14.02.2021. Available at: https://www.lavanguardia.com/politica/elecciones/20210214/6247579/resultados-elecciones-catalanas-14f-psc-erc.html (accessed 20.03.2021).

6. Arroyo Menendez M. Las causas del apoyo electoral a Vox en Espana. Política y sociedad, 2019, no. 3, pp. 693-717.

7. Kozhanovskii A.N. Evolution of socio-cultural values and norms of the Spanish society at the turn of the –I century. Iberoamerikanskie tetradi, 2017, vol. 1 (15), pp. 41-45. (In Russ.)

8. Astakhova E.V. Peculiarities of the Vox party discourse and the reasons for its success. Spain in a new national and international reality. Yakovlev P.P., Kurakina-Damir A.A., eds. Moscow, ILA RAN, 2020, pp. 35-44. (In Russ.)

9. Manifiesto Fundacional. Available at: https://www.voxespana.es/espana/manifiesto-fundacional-vox (accessed 04.02.2021).

10. Que piensa y que propone realmente el programa de Vox para Espana, 08.11.2019. Available at: https://magnet.xataka.com/en-diez-minutos/que-piensa-que-propone-realmente-programa-vox-para-espana-1 (accessed 04.02.2021).

11. Las 100 medidas urgentes de Vox para Espana. Available at: https://cadenaser.com/ser/2019/04/08/politica/1554730981_370802.html (accessed 05.02.2021).

12. Ferreira C. Vox como representante de la derecha radical en Espana: un estudio sobre su ideologia. Revista Espanola de Ciencia Politica, 2019, no. 51, pp. 73-98.

13. El discurso y la posicion de Vox sobre el franquismo, 20.11.2020. Available at: https://maldita.es/malditahemeroteca/20201120/el-discurso-y-la-posicion-de-vox-sobre-el-franquismo/ (accessed 01.03.2021).

14. Sanchez Rodrigues J. Un analisis de Vox: Causas de su exito, naturaleza de su programa, estrategias de crecimiento. Rebelion, 06.02.2020. Available at: https://rebelion.org/un-analisis-de-vox-causas-de-su-exito-naturaleza-de-su-programa-estrategias-de-crecimiento/ (accessed 14.03.2021).

15. Vox plantea un cambio “radical” en la ley de las armas para que se puedan llevar para la autodefensa. Available at: https://www.rtve.es/noticias/20190320/vox-plantea-cambio-ley-armas-para-se-puedan-llevar-para-defensa-propia/1905820.shtml (accessed 03.04.2021).

16. Vox insiste en declarar el 8M dia de las victimas del coronavirus y tilde de “violento” y “enloquecido” al movimiento feminista. La Vanguardia, 08.03.2021. Available at: https://www.lavanguardia.com/politica/20210308/6265749/vox-insiste-declarar-8m-dia-nacional-victimas-coronavirus.html (accessed 25.03.2021).

17. Spanish “feminist paradise” was attached for “feminazism”. Vsglyad, 13.11.2019. (In Russ.) Available at: https://vz.ru/news/2019/11/13/1008271.html (accessed 05.04.2021).

18. Vox calienta la calle entre ataques a sedes del PSOE, amenazas a politicos y llamamientos golpistas, 12.01.2020. Available at: https://www.elplural.com/politica/espana/vox-calienta-calle-ataques-sedes-psoe-amenazas-politicos-llamamientosgolpistas_231101102 (accessed 15.03.2021).

19. Vox reclama la dimision de Pedro Sanchez y la creacion de un Gobierno de “emergencia nacional”. Available at: https://elpais.com/espana/2020-03-31/vox-reclama-la-dimision-de-pedro-sanchez-y-la-creacion-de-un-gobierno-de-emergencia-nacional.html (accessed 05.02.2021).

20. El Aznarismo reclama a Casado la integracion con Vox para evitar la extinction del PP. El País, 02.03.2021. Available at: https://elpais.com/espana/2021-03-01/el-aznarismo-reclama-a-casado-la-integracion-con-vox-para-evitar-la-extincion-del-pp.html (accessed 03.03.2021).

21. Vox, el unico partido que crece en los diez pueblos mas pobres de Espana. ABC, 14.11.2019. Available at: https://www.abc.es/espana/abci-unico-partido-crece-diez-pueblos-mas-pobres-espana-201911132223_noticia.html (accessed 05.02.2021).

22. El PP acentua su distancia con Vox: “Defiende una Espana nostalgica de los anos del franquismo”. Available at: https://www.servimedia.es/noticias/1338629 (accessed 14.03.2021).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Khenkin S. Vox Spanish Variant of Radical Right Party in Present-Day Europe. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 69-78. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-11-69-78

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.