Protectionism 2.0: New Reality in the Age of Globalisation

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-8-37-45
V. Milovidov (,
MGIMO University, 76, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation;
Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, 15B, Flotskaya Str., Moscow,125413, Russian Federation.
N. Asker-Zade (
MGIMO University, 76, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article analyzes the new stage of protectionism, which is a complex phenomenon that cannot be mechanically opposed to the long-term trend towards globalization. Such protectionism has its distinctive features, and the authors define it as protectionism 2.0. The long-term trends of changes in world economic relations are assessed. The authors view the decision of the US on import duties as tactical, designed to provide the necessary pressure on the largest strategic economic partners of the United States in order to change the structure of foreign trade and decrease the trade deficit in the long term. The long-term American goal is to change the tools and forms of protection of national business, this will ensure the country’s long-term advantage in the trade and economic sphere. The US increasingly use tools of extraterritorial protectionism to get the unilateral preferences in international competition. Along with that, the US support initiatives regarding the ban on traditional protectionist measures of other countries, including numerous subsidies to national producers. Also, the article shows that the status of developing countries is essential for further discussions in WTO. The authors argue that this status will be the subject of revision, mostly in the case of China or India. The article notes that the phenomenon of protectionism 2.0 indicates the beginning of radical and long-term changes in the entire system of world trade. It is in the interests of the US to maintain and strengthen the American-centrism of the post-war economic system. The authors suggest that in the future, along with the transformation of measures of international regulation of foreign trade, the issue of reforming the world monetary system will be put on the agenda.

Keywords: protectionism, globalization, world economy, import tariffs, sanctions, exterritoriality, trade policy, tariffs war, subsidies, WTO


1. Milovidov V.D. Upravlenie innovatsionnym protsessom: kak effektivno ispol’zovat’ informatsiyu [Management of innovation: how to effectively use the information]. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo, 2015, no. 6, pp. 10-16.

2. Milovidov V.D. Proaktivnoe upravlenie innovacijami: sostavlenie karty znanij [Proactive innovation management: knowledge mapping]. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo, 2015, no. 8, . 16-21.

3. Milovidov V.D. Uslyshat’ shum volny: chto meshaet predvidet’ innovatsii? [Hearing the sound of the wave: what impedes one’s ability to foresee innovations?] Forsight, 2018, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 88-97. DOI:10.17323/2500-2597.2018.1.88.97

4. Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States, and Canada. Chapter 33. Macroeconomic policies and exchange rate matters. December 2019. 6 p. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

5. Economic and Trade Agreement between the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China. Phase One. January 2020. 94 p. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

6. Joint Statement of the Trilateral Meeting of the Trade Ministers of Japan, the United States and the European Union. Washington, January 2020. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

7. Burri M. Cultural Protectionism 2.0: Updating Cultural Policy Tools for the Digital Age. Transnational Culture in the Internet Age. Pager S., Candeub A., eds. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, pp. 182-202. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

8. Top Risks 2018. New York, Eurasia Group. January 2, 2018. 26 p.

9. Jean S., Reshef A. Why Trade, and what Would Be the Consequences of Protectionism? Annex 1 to “The Added Value of International Trade and Impact of Trade Barriers – Cost of Non-Europe Report”. European Parliament Research Service. 2017, pp. 65-111.

10. Study: over the years of sanctions, the Russian Federation has reduced dollar share in foreign trade. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

11. Milovidov V.D. Rasshifrovat’ Trampa: ekonomicheskii podhod [Deciphering Trump: an economic approach]. Problemy nacional’noi strategii, 2018, no. 1, pp. 147-168.

12. The history of US protectionism, in one 230-year chart. March 2018. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

13. World Tariff Profiles 2018. WTO. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

14. Aftershock. The Pervasive Effects of Tariffs Hikes. London, The Economist Intelligent Unit, 2019. 41 p.

15. Baughman L.M., Francois J.F. Trade and American Jobs. The Impact of Trade on U.S. and State-Level Employment. 2019 Update. February 2019. 24 p. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

16. Amiti M., Redding S.J., Weinstein D.E. The Impact of the Trade war on U.S. Prices and Wealfare. NBER Working Paper no. 25672, March 2019. 37 p. DOI:10.3386/w25672. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

17. York E. Tracking the Economic Impact of U. S. Tariffs and Retaliatory Actions. February 2020. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

18. Fajgelbaum P.D., Goldberg P.K., Kennedy P.J., Khadelwal A.K. The Return to Protectionism. NBER Working paper no. 25638, October 2019. 81 p. DOI:10.3386/w25638. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

19. Flaaen A., Pierce J. Disentagling the Effects of the 2018–2019 Tariffs on a Globally Connected U. S. Manufacturing Sector. December 2019. 32 p. DOI:10.17016/FEDS.2019.086. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

20. Cavallo A., Neiman B., Gopinat G., Tang J. Tariff Passthrough at the Border and at the Store: Evidence from U. S. Trade Policy. Harvard Business School, Working paper 20-041. 2019. 35 p. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

21. Jaeger-Waldau A. PV Status Report 2019. EUR-Scientific and Technical Research Reports. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the Europen Union, 2019. DOI:10.2760/326629. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

22. Flaaen A., Hortacsu A., Tintelnot F. The Production Relocation and Price Effects of U. S. Trade Policy: The Case of Washing Machines. NBER Working paper no. 25767, April 2019. 64 p. DOI: 10.3386/w25767. Available at: (accessed 05.03.2020).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Milovidov V., Asker-Zade N. Protectionism 2.0: New Reality in the Age of Globalisation. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 37-45.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.