Will European Union Become a Global Power Center?

122
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-6-51-65

N. Arbatova (arbatova@imemo.ru),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article is dedicated to the analysis of the EU potential to become a real power center in the global politics. No doubt, European Integration is the greatest project of all times. But it is also true that the European Union is currently experiencing the most difficult period in its entire history being under the pressure of several crises – consequences of the world economic and financial crisis, new risks of a global economic slowdown as a result of the coronavirus outbreak, migration crisis, troubled relations with the U.S., China and Russia, etc. The end of the East-West confrontation that removed the threat of a global conflict has resulted in the crisis of the Euro-Atlantic partnership, namely the growing gap between the USA and the EU in the security sector, the emergence of a new China with global ambitions, the rise of a self-assertive post-Soviet Russia and numerous regional actors – India, Japan, Turkey, Iran, Brazil and other. However, the modern polycentric world is strongly influenced by the evolving balance between two opposite trends – the trend towards multilateral cooperation on global challenges and the trend towards a new bipolarity. This new bipolarity is developing within the same capitalist system and can be defined as a growing split between the liberal and authoritarian capitalism. The former is most vividly represented by the European Union, USA and their allies, while the latter – by China and Russia. Strictly speaking, nowadays, the only full-fledged power center is the United States, whose economic and military potential guarantees its political influence in world affairs. China is approaching these standards. The European Union and Russia represent two opposite models. The EU is an economic power center while Russia is a military power center. In order to become an influential power center capable to protect its integrationist model globally, the European Union needs to learn Realpolitik, rethink its previous idealistic approach towards the postbipolar world and acquire strategic autonomy capabilities. Aside from this, the EU leadership should resolve numerous existential problems, beginning with the challenge of nationalism, which is fueled by the crisis of liberal democracy, and ending with the necessity to define future contours of the European construct. The COVID-19 pandemic has made adjustments to the existing postbipolar world order and “Great Power” competition, having weakened two leaders of globalization – USA and China - and opened a new window of opportunity for EU.

Keywords: European Union, center of power, international relations, polycentric world, Russia, USA, China, Euro-Atlantic partnership, Ukrainian conflict, crisis, liberal democracy, migration, the EU Global Strategy, common defense, strategic autonomy, the pandemic


REFERENCES 

1. Coudenhove-Kalergi R.N. Pan-Evropa [Pan-Euorope]. Moscow, Vita Planetare, 2006. 120 p.

2. Laidi Zaki. Can Europe learn to play power politics? Center for European Reform, November 2019. Available at: https://www.cer.eu/publications/archive/essay/2019/can-europe-learn-play-power-politics (accessed 23.10.2018).

3. Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe a Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy. Available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf (accessed 23.10.2019).

4. Opening Statement in the European Parliament Plenary Session by Ursula von der Leyen, Candidate for President of the European Commission 16 July 2019. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/SPEECH_19_4230 (accessed 23.10.2020).

5. Speech by President-elect Ursula von der Leyen at the 2019 Paris Peace Forum. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/speech_19_6270 (accessed 23.10.2020).

6. Muller-Hennig M. Velikoderzhavnye fantazii Bryusselya. “Istinno geopoliticheskaya Evrokomissiya” – opasnyi put’ Ursula von der Leyen. Evropa ne imeet prava poddavat’sya sladkomu zovu siren [Greatpower fantasies of Brussels. A truly geopolitical Eurocomission – a dangerous path of Ursula von der Leyen. Europe has no right to succumb to the sweet call of sirens]. IPG Mezhdunarodnaya politika i obshchestvo, 02.12.2019. Available at: https://www.ipg-journal.io/regiony/evropa/statja/show/velikoderzhavnye-fantazii-brjusselja-943/ (accessed 23.10.2020).

7. Temirgaleev R. Aleksei Arbatov: “V SShA iskhodyat iz togo, chto Putin probudet do 2024 goda” [Alexey Arbatov: “The US proceeds from the understanding that Putin will stay till 2024”]. Colta, 21.07.2015. Available at: https://www.colta.ru/articles/society/8003-aleksey-arbatov-v-ssha-ishodyat-iz-togo-chto-putin-probudet-do-2024-goda?page=15 (accessed 23.10.2020).

8. Morillas P., Quero J. The US, China, and The EU in A New Global Order: A World of Two or Three? TEPSA, January 2020. Available at: http://www.tepsa.eu/the-us-china-and-the-eu-in-a-new-global-order-a-world-of-two-or-three-pol-morillas-and-jordi-quero-cidob-spain/ (accessed 23.02.2020).

9. Emmanuel Macron warns Europe: NATO is becoming brain-dead. The Economist, November 07, 2019. Available at: https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/11/07/emmanuel-macron-warns-europe-nato-is-becoming-brain-dead (accessed 23.02.2020).

10. Rakesh Sood. Macron’s wake-up call to EU. The Hindou, December 02, 2019. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/macrons-wake-up-call-to-eu/article30131700.ece (accessed 23.02.2020).

11. Biscop S. Strategic Choices for the 2020s. Egmont, Security policy Brief, no. 122, February 2020. Available at: http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2020/02/SPB122.pdf?type=pdf (accessed 15.03.2020).

12. European Commission and HR/VP contribution to the European Council EU-China – A strategic outlook. 12 March 2019. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/communication-eu-china-a-strategic-outlook.pdf (accessed 15.03.2020).

13. Riley A. China and US in the New global Order: The Role for the EU? CIDOB Opinion 608, January 2020. Available at: https://www.cidob.org/en/publications/publication_series/opinion/seguridad_y_politica_mundial/china_and_us_in_the_new_global_order_the_role_for_the_eu (accessed 15.03.2020).

14. EU Global Strategy. European Union. External Action. Available at: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/eu-global-strategy_en (accessed 15.03.2020).

15. Houk Z. Macron prizyvaet Evropu nalazhivat’ otnosheniya s Rossiei [Macron calls Europe to improve relations with Russia]. Russkaya sluzhba “Voice of America”, 28.08.2019. Available at: https://www.golos-ameriki.ru/a/macron-sayseurope-should-reach-out-to-russia/5059877.html (accessed 15.03.2020).

16. Giles Merritt. Why making friends with Moscow is a no-brainer. 29 October 2019. Available at: https://www.friendsofeurope.org/insights/why-making-friends-with-moscow-is-a-no-brainer/ (accessed 15.03.2020).

17. Bolton John. Should we take global governance seriously? Chicago Journal of International Law, 2000, vol. 1, no. 2. Available at: https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=cjil (accessed 15.03.2020).

18. Bohrer Karl Heinz. Projekt Kleinstaat. MERKUR, Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Europaisches Denken, August 2011. Available at: https://volltext.merkur-zeitschrift.de/article/mr_2011_08_0661-0669_0661_01 (accessed 15.03.2020).

19. Erlanger Steven, Bennhold Katrin. Rift between Trump and Europe is now open and angry. New York Times, 17.02.2019. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/17/world/europe/trump-international-relations-munich.html (accessed 15.03.2020).

20. Speech by Federal Minister of Defence at the Bundeswehr University Munich. BMVg Services, 07.11.2019. Available at: https://www.bmvg.de/de/aktuelles/speech-federal-minister-of-defence-security-policy-147072 (accessed 15.03.2020).

21. Arbatova N. Strategicheskaya avtonomiya Evropeiiskogo Soyuza: real’nost’ ili blagoe pozhelanie? [The EU strategic Autonomy: Reality or a Wishful Thinking?] Polis. Political Studies, 2019, no. 6, pp. 36-52. DOI:10.17976/jpps/2019.06.04

22. Biscop S. From Global Strategy to Strategic Compass: Where Is the EU Heading? Egmont, Security policy Brief, no. 121, December 2019. Available at: http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2019/12/SPB121_FINAL.pdf?type=pdf (accessed 15.03.2020).

23. Declaration of 9 may 1950. Fondation Robert Shuman (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.robert-schuman.eu/ru/doc/questions-d-europe/qe-391-ru.pdf (accessed 15.03.2020).

24. Rupnik Jacques. Explaining Eastern Europe: The Crisis of Liberalism. Journal of Democracy, July 2018, vol. 29, Issue 3, pp. 23-38.

25. Mahony Honor. Barroso says EU is an empire. Euobserver, Brussels, 11 July 2007. Available at: https://euobserver.com/institutional/24458 (accessed 15.03.2020).

26. Zweifel T. Who is without sin cast the first stone: The EU’s democratic deficit in comparison? Journal of European Public Policy, 2002, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 812-840.

27. Follesdal A., Hix S. Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU: A response to Majone and Moravcsik. Journal of Common Market Studies, 2006, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 533-562.

28. Annett Anthony, Lipsky Joshua. Past as Prologue. Ancient Rome offers lessons on the importance of sustainable development. Finance & Development, March 2019, vol. 56, no. 1. Available at: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2019/03/ancient-rome-and-sustainable-development-annett.htm?utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery (accessed 15.03.2020).

29. John Paul II. Slavorum Apostoli. Available at: http://www.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_19850602_slavorum-apostoli.html (accessed 15.03.2020).

30. Bytyci Fatos, Robinson Matt. Albania and Kosovo to unite, inside EU or not: Albanian PM. Reuters, April 7, 2015. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-albania-kosovo-unification-idUSKBN0MY18L20150407 (accessed 15.03.2020).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Arbatova N. Will European Union Become a Global Power Center?. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, No 6, pp. 51-65. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-6-51-65



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 11
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Developing Countries in the New Equation of the Post-Crisis World Order 
  • U.S. Public Diplomacy as a Tool for “Political Warfare” 
  • Central Europe: Possible Scenarios
  • The Collapse of the Global Consumption Model: in Search of Sustainability
  • Future Wars in Light of the Past Experience
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.