Ya. Leksyutina (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Saint-Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya Emb., Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
In the post-Cold war period, U.S.–China relations have always been characterized by the presence of a large number of problems and contradictions, which, however, did not cancel the readiness of the two states to compromise and seek cooperation on global and regional issues. An important stabilizing foundation for these bilateral relations has always been the strong economic interdependence of the two countries, which has restrained the growth of political differences into prolonged crises of bilateral interaction. However, the arrival of Donald Trump in the American administration significantly shook the basics of U.S.–China relations. Motivated by a desire to eventually solve longstanding problems in the bilateral trade and economic relations by pressuring Beijing to change its economic practices, since 2018, Trump administration has imposed in several stages tariffs on almost all U.S. imports from China, placed restrictions on the ability of American firms to supply Chinese technology companies, labeled China a currency manipulator for the first time in a quarter century, etc. Beijing has reciprocated with imposition of tariffs on imports from the U.S. and other countermeasures, undertaken subtle changes of its economic practices, stringently rejecting to bring fundamental changes to its economic policies. Initiated by Trump’s actions, trade war with the PRC has launched the decoupling process in the U.S.–China economic relations – the destruction of deep economic interdependence between the two countries accumulated over the past four decades, specifically in high-tech industries. There are more and more clear signs that the U.S. trade war with China, which was originally based on economic reasons and motivation, has become a trigger for the development of structural and system contradictions between the two states. Having lost the once-stabilizing bilateral relations basis – the deep economic interdependence – the United States and China are becoming increasingly involved in a complex overall confrontation, falling into the so-called “Thucydides trap”.
U.S.–China relations, trade war, China, the U.S., trade and economic relations, telecommunication companies, technologies
1. Timofeev O.A. Kitaisko-amerikanskii torgovyi konflikt 2019 goda i ego perspektivy: mezhdu pessimizmom i neizvestnost’yu [Sino-US trade conflict in 2019 and its prospects: between pessimism and the uncertainty]. Kitai v mirovoi i regional’noi politike. Istoriya i sovremennost’, 2019, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 173-186. DOI:10.24411/2618_6888_2019_10010
2. Niu Xinchun. Eight Myths of Sino-US Relations. Contemporary International Relations, 2011, no. 5, pp. 5-12 (In Chin.)
3. Lawrence S. U.S.–China relations. CRS report, 29.08.2019. Available at: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R45898.pdf (accessed 11.03.2020).
4. USTR Statement on Section 301 Tariff Action Regarding China. Office of the U. S. Trade Representative. 23.08.2019. Available at: https://ustr.gov/about-us/policy-offices/press-office/press-releases/2019/august/ustr-statement-section-301-tariff (accessed 03.03.2020).
5. Economic and Trade Agreement between the Government of the USA and the Government of the PRC. Article 6.2. Available at: https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/files/agreements/phase%20one%20agreement/Economic_And_Trade_Agreement_Between_The_United_States_And_China_Text.pdf (accessed 01.04.2020).
6. Leksyutina Ya. Torg zdes’ neumesten [Trading is inappropriate here]. Profil’, 01.05.2018. Available at: http://m.profile.ru/politika/item/125565-torg-zdes-neumesten (accessed 23.03.2020).
7. Update Concerning China’s Acts, Policies and Practices Related to Technology Transfer, Intellectual Property, and Innovation. 20.11.2018. Available at: https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/enforcement/301Investigations/301%20Report%20Update.pdf (accessed 21.02.2020).
8. Trush S. M. Torgovaya voina D. Trampa protiv KNR: sobytiya, motivatsii, vnutrennii kontekst [D. Trump’s Trade War against China: Events, Motivations, Internal Context]. Russia and America in 21st century, issue 3, 24.12.2018. DOI:10.18254/S0000047-8-1. Available at: https://rusus.jes.su/s207054760000047-8-1/ (accessed 26.03.2020).
9. Mikheev V., Lukonin S. Kitai–SShA: mnogovektornost’ “torgovoi voiny” [China–USA: Multiple Vector of “Trade War”]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 57-66. DOI:10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-5-57-66
10. 2019 Annual report to Congress. U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission. Available at: https://www.uscc.gov/annual-report/2019-annual-report (accessed 06.03.2020).
11. Zhang A. The U. S.–China Trade Negotiation: A Contract Theory Perspective. 01.12.2019. Available at: https://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/279684/1/Content.pdf?accept=1 (accessed 21.03.2020).
12. Findings of the Investigation into China’s Acts, Policies, and Practices Related to Technology Transfer, Intellectual Property, and Innovation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974. 22.03.2018. Available at: https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/Section%20301%20FINAL.PDF (accessed 21.03.2020).
13. Hearing on Risks, Rewards, and Results: U. S. Companies in China and Chinese Companies in the United States, written testimony of Mark Wu. 28.02.2019. Available at: https://www.uscc.gov/hearings/risks-rewards-and-results-us-companies-china-andchinese-companies-united-states (accessed 11.03.2020).
14. 2018 Report to Congress on China’s WTO Compliance. United States Trade Representative. February 2019. Available at: https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/2018-USTR-Report-to-Congress-on-China%27s-WTO-Compliance.pdf (accessed 15.03.2020).
15. Lim D., Ferguson D. Conscious Decoupling: The Technology Security Dilemma. 31.10.2019. DOI:10.22459/CSY.2020.04 Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3484171 (accessed 20.03.2020).
16. BIS Removes ZTE from Entity List. Wiley, 30.03.2017. Available at: https://www.wiley.law/alert-Client_Alert-BIS_Removes_ZTE_from_Entity_List (accessed 21.03.2020).
17. Glaser B., Flaherthy K. U.S.–China Relations: Tit-for-Tat Tariffs. Comparative Connections, 2018, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 21-36.
18. John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019. Public Law 115–232. 13.08.2018. Section 889. Available at: https://www.congress.gov/115/plaws/publ232/PLAW-115publ232.pdf (accessed 21.03.2020).
19. Executive Order on Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain. 15.05.2019. Available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-securing-information-communications-technology-services-supply-chain/ (accessed 10.03.2020).
20. Lewis J. China’s Pursuit of Semiconductor Independence. CSIS, 27.02.2019. Available at: https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/190115_Lewis_Semiconductor_v6.pdf (accessed 21.03.2020).
21. U.S. Won’t Partner with Countries that Use Huawei Systems: Pompeo. Reuters, 21.02.2019. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-huawei-tech-usa-pompeo-idUSKCN1QA1O6 (accessed 21.03.2020).
22. Segal A. Seizing Core Technologies: China Responds to U. S. Technology Competition. WITA, 06.01.2019. Available at: https://www.wita.org/nextgentrade/china-responds-u-s-tech-competition/ (accessed 21.03.2020).
23. Chun Yatu, Van Tszyun’lin. Kitai na strazhe svobodnoi torgovli [China is the guardian of free trade]. Kitai, 2019, no. 7 (165), pp. 52-53. Available at: https://www.pressreader.com/china/china-russian/20190708/282029033820428 (accessed 02.04.2020).
24. Lomanov A. Kitaiskie diskussii ob otnosheniyakh s SShA i torgovoi voine [Chinese Discussions About Relations with the U.S. and the Trade War]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 17-29. DOI:10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-10-17-29
25. Wang Jisi. Assessing the Radical Transformation of U. S. Policy toward China. China International Strategy Review, 2019, no. 1, pp. 195-204. DOI:10.1007/s42533-019-00029-4
Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX