Digital Technologies: Policy for Improving Accessibility and Usage Skills Development in Europe and Russia

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-4-70-83
N. Plotichkina (, 
Kuban State University (KubSU), 149, Stavropolskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350040, Russian Federation;
E. Morozova (, 
Kuban State University (KubSU), 149, Stavropolskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350040, Russian Federation;
I. Miroshnichenko (, 
Kuban State University (KubSU), 149, Stavropolskaya Str., Krasnodar, 350040, Russian Federation

Acknowledgements. The article has been supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR). Project no. 18-011-00975 “Subjective Space of Politics: Opportunities and Challenges of Network Society”.

Abstract. A new type of social inequality has arisen in the information society – the digital divide. The current understanding of this phenomenon is not so much connected with the problem of Internet access, but rather with the ability of users to employ digital technologies to improve their lives. Digital inequality creates new “social elevators” – the level of IT skills becomes the most important differentiating factor which sets a new framework for socialization system. A way to overcome the digital divide is to develop and implement a digital inclusion policy. Digital inclusion is a type of social inclusion in a digital society, aimed at overcoming inequality, digital isolation of citizens. It focuses on the social implications of differences in the use of IT by groups or individuals. Ultimately, the digital inclusion policy does not focus on the development of digital infrastructure or skills, but on ensuring the emergence of “visible” social results of online interaction among citizens (increment of economic, cultural and other forms of capital) due to the use of web resources. Based on comparative analysis, the manifestations of the digital divide in foreign countries and Russia are shown, the main types of digital inclusion policies and the agencies for their implementation are identified. The priorities of digital inclusion policy and the structure of its management depend on socio-political realities in each particular country. Overcoming regional and generational aspects of the digital divide is a priority for Russia. The European digital inclusion strategy is to provide digital benefits to all citizens, regardless of gender, age, education, income, geography. Mastering digital skills is shown as a fundamental indicator of digital inclusion in the modern sense. The key agencies of digital inclusion policy are nation-state and education system, however, the role of intersectoral interaction, NGOs, local communities, libraries in the development of digital skills among various population groups is significant. The monitoring system for digital inclusion policies is briefly described.

Keywords: digital divide, digital inclusion, digital socialization, digital inclusion policy, intersectoral interaction


  1. Negroponte N. Being Digital. New York, Hodder and Stoughton, 1995. 243 p.
  2. Zittrain J. The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It. New Haven, CT; London, Yale Univ. Press, 2008. 342 p.
  3. Asmolov G.A., Asmolov A.G. Internet kak generativnoe prostranstvo [The Internet as a Generative Space]. Voprosy psikhologii, 2019, no. 4, pp. 3-28.
  4. Morozova E. V., Miroshnichenko I.V., Ryabchenko N.A. Frontir setevogo obshchestva [The Frontier of Network Society]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2016, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 83-97.
  5. Lapkin V.V., Semenenko I.S. “Chelovek politicheskii” pered vyzovami “infomodernity” [“Political Person” before the Challenges of “Infomodernity”]. Polis. Political Studies, 2013, no. 6, pp. 64-81.
  6. Sadovaya E.S. Chelovek v tsifrovom obshchestve: dinamika sotsial’no-trudovykh otnoshenii [People in a Digital Society: Dynamics of Social and Labor Relations]. South-Russian Journal of Social Sciences, 2018, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 6-20. DOI:10.31429/26190567-19-3-6-20
  7. Mel’nikova T.S. Rol’ tsifrovoi sotsializatsii v protsesse modernizatsii politicheskoi kul’tury sovremennoi Rossii: postanovka issledovatel’skikh zadach [The Role of Digital Socialisation in the Process of Modernizing Political Culture in Present Russia: Setting the Research Goals]. Vlast’, 2017, no. 7, pp. 80-85.
  8. Moroz O.V. Praktiki digital’nogo obucheniya: kak stat’ otvetstvennym gorozhaninom? [Practices of Digital Training: How to Become a Responsible Citizen?] Shagi, 2017, no. 3 (2), pp. 117-130.
  9. Soldatova G.U. Tsifrovaya sotsializatsiya v kul’turno-istoricheskoi paradigme: izmenyayushchiisya rebenok v izmenyayushchemsya mire [Digital Socialization in the Cultural-Historical Paradigm: A Changing Child in a Changing World]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo, 2018, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 71-80. DOI:10.17759/ sps.2018090308
  10. Al-Muwil A., Weerakkody V., El-haddadeh R., Dwivedi Y. Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK. Information Systems Frontiers, 2019, no. 21, pp. 635-659. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  11. Dedyulina M.A. Tsifrovoe neravenstvo: filosofskoe osmyslenie [Digital Inequality: Philosophical Thinking]. Studia Humanitatis, 2017, no. 2. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  12. Bondarenko S. Tsifrovoe neravenstvo [Digital Inequality]. Nauka i zhizn’, 2001, no. 6. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  13. Van Deursen A.J.A.M., Helsper E., Eynon R., van Dijk J.A.G.M. The Compoundness and Sequentiality of Digital Inequality. International Journal of Communication, 2017, no. 11, pp. 452-473.
  14. Van Deursen A.J.A.M., van Dijk J.A.G.M. The Digital Divide Shifts to Differences in Usage. New Media and Society, 2013, no. 16, pp. 507-526.
  15. OECD Skills Outlook 2019: Thriving in a Digital World. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2019. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  16. Helsper E., van Deursen A.J.A.M. Digital Skills in Europe: Research and Policy. Digital Divides. Ed. by Andreasson K. Boca Raton, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015, pp. 125-149.
  17. Volchenko O.V. Dinamika tsifrovogo neravenstva v Rossii [Dynamics of Digital Inequality in Russia]. Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes Journal, 2016, no. 5, pp. 162-181. DOI:10.14515/monitoring.2016.5.10
  18. European Commission. A Digital Agenda for Europe. Brussels: European Commission COM. 2010, 19 May. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  19. Rosa Ribeiro F. Digital Inclusion as Public Policy Disputes in The Human Rights Field. International Journal of Human Rights, 2013, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 33-54.
  20. Scheerder A., van Deursen A.J.A.M., van Dijk J.A.G.M. Determinants of Internet Skills, Uses and Outcomes. A Systematic Review of the Second-and Third-Level Digital Divide. Telematics and Informatics, 2017, no. 34(8), pp. 1607-1624. DOI:
  21. Capacity Building in a Changing ICT Environment. Geneva, ITU, 2018. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  22. Carretero S., Vuorikari R., Punie Y. DigComp 2.1: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens with Eight Proficiency Levels and Examples of Use. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2017. 48 p. DOI:10.2760/38842 Available at: (accessed 03.02.2020).
  23. Building Digital Competencies to Benefit from Frontier Technologies. UNCTAD New York, United Nations Publications, 2019. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  24. International Telecommunication Union. Measuring the Information Society. Report 2018. Vol. 1. Geneva, ITU, 2018. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  25. UK Digital Strategy 2017. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  26. Orlik J., Casasbuenas J., Helkkula K. Digital Frontrunners – Designing Inclusive Skills Policy for the Digital Age. London, NESTA, 2018. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  27. Realising Digital Myanmar. Leapfrogging to an Inclusive Digital Economy. Available at:‑06-February.pdf (accessed 29.12.2019).
  28. International Telecommunication Union. Digital Skills Toolkit. Geneva, ITU, 2018. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  29. OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2017. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2017. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  30. The Passport of National Project “Modern Digital Educational Environment in Russia”. Approved by the Presidium of the Council under the President of the Russian Federation on Strategic Development and Priority Projects, Protocol dated 25.10.2016 9, with amendments dated 27.09.2017 10 (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  31. Approval of the State Programme of the Russian Federation “Development of education”. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 26.12.2017 no. 1642 (ed. of 04.10.2018) (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  32. The Passport of the National Program “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation”. Approved by Presidium of Council for Strategic Development and National Projects under the President of Russian Federation 24.12.2018, Protocol no. 16.t (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  33. The Digital Skills and Jobs Coalition. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  34. Digital Inclusion Reports and Resources (ITU). Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  35. Ainley J., Schulz W., Fraillon J. A Global Measure of Digital and ICT Literacy Skills. Paris, UNESCO, 2016. 21 p. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  36. Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives – Summary, OECD. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2019. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).
  37. Helsper E. Digital Inclusion in Europe: Evaluating Policy and Practice. 2014. Available at: (accessed 29.12.2019).

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Plotichkina N., Morozova E., Miroshnichenko I. Digital Technologies: Policy for Improving Accessibility and Usage Skills Development in Europe and Russia . World Eonomy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 70-83.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment






Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies


Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.