A. Nechaev (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Saint Petersburg State University, 62, Tchaikovsky Str., St. Petersburg, 191123, Russian Federation
Abstract. The urgent issue for Russia is to determine overarching science and technological policy priorities of the neoindustrialization of the national economy. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of science and technology in Russia and technologically advanced economies of the world on a number of indicators: gross expenditures on R&D as a percentage of GDP in total and by funding sources, publication activity, number of researchers and number of R&D personnel per thousand employed in the economy, number of R&D enterprises, etc. The results show low degree of investing in R&D in Russia and its sources are funded by the government largely. The lag in the advancement of science and technology relative to leading countries is testified by other indicators. We conclude that Russia needs to draw up its national innovation system to unify innovation process with institutional arrangements as legal acts, business practices, popularization and funding stimulatory mechanisms such as grants, subsidies, soft loans, tax benefits. It will allow to enhance business participating as investors and initiators in R&D projects and technology production. An innovation process also requires to keep and to expand an integration of the triad “science–education–industry” to entire economics with creating clusters that will include real sector enterprises of main and auxiliary production, educational institutions, research institutes with own design bureaus. The indicators of the advancement of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies and IT as a perspective core of the fourth industrial revolution also reveal distinct advantage of leading countries. Ultimately, we outline the main priorities of science and technology policy that will make it possible to imply the neoindustrialization of the Russian economy to achieve leading countries in the field of techno-and-economic advancement and to improve the quality of life.
Keywords: new industrial revolution, neoindustrialization, science and technology policy, science and technological priorities, techno-and-economic advancement, NBICS- Technologies, artificial intelligence (AI)
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