Social Policy in Latin American Countries in the Early 21st Century: Opportunities and Limits

93
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-10-112-120
L. D'yakova (diakova65@mail.ru),
Institute of Latin American Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 21/16, B. Ordynka Str., Moscow, 115035, Russian Federation

Abstract. In the first decades of the 21st century, Latin American countries made significant steps towards social development. The period of the “Golden Decade” (2003–2013) was particularly successful, marked by high rates of economic growth, which most states of the region used to implement targeted social policies aimed at reducing poverty and social inequality, increasing employment, improving effectiveness of social protection of the population, education and health systems. An important part of the strategy for overcoming poverty were the conditional cash transfer programs, which aimed to reduce not only poverty, but also social exclusion, and to achieve a higher level of social development through small but permanent changes. The main actor of change would not be the state, but an individual or a family. Despite the ambiguity of the results obtained, which did not always correspond to efforts spent by the state, the experience of conditional cash transfer programs has become a part of an intensive search by Latin American countries for their own path of social development, due to specifics of accumulated problems and availability of real opportunities to solve them. The article analyzes the overall results of the policy on modernization of the social sphere, considers problems and challenges of the new stage. The latter began in 2014 and coincided with a slowdown in economic growth and general dissatisfaction with outcomes of social projects that did not lead to a drastic reduction of social inequality. The author highlights the key directions of forming a social strategy at the present stage, including a multi-factor approach to overcoming poverty, programs for young people, elderly people, and the native Indian population. There are new challenges relatable to the growth of mass social expectations, public disillusionment with the State’s capabilities, and radical protest moods that increase the risks of political destabilization. The author comes to a conclusion that Latin American countries need to develop a new model of social policy aimed at radically overcoming social inequality, creating effective social elevators for young people from poor segments of society, and supporting a new middle class that has grown over the years of economic prosperity, but is vulnerable to the risks of a new economic crisis. Insufficient measures can reverse the process of social revival that has begun in the region.

Keywords: Latin America, social policy, poverty, inequality, conditional cash transfer programs, social expectations, protest moods


REFERENCES

1. Panorama Social de America Latina 2013. CEPAL. Santiago, 2014. 228 p.

2. Activos con America Latina y el Caribe. OCDE. Available at: at: http://www.oecd.org/ (accessed 20.09.2019).

3. Medicion de la pobreza por ingresos: actualizacion metodologica y resultados. Metodologias de la CEPAL. Santiago, 2018. 232 p.

4. D’yakova L.V. Chiliiskaya demokratiya: preemstvennost’ i peremeny [The Chilean Democracy: Continuity and Change]. Moscow, ILA RAN, 2013. 325 p.

5. Rzhanitsyna L.S. Bednye v Moskve: sposoby izmereniya, mery sotsial’noi politiki [The Poor in Moscow: Methods of Measurement, Measures of Social Policy]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2018, no. 10, pp. 77-89.

6. Velasco R. Las fisuras del bienestar en Espana. Madrid, Catarata, 2019. 288 p.

7. Ermol’eva E.G. Sotsial’noe gosudarstvo v usloviyakh “novoi normal’nosti”: kharakteristiki evropeiskoi i latinoamerikanskoi situatsii [The Social State in the “New Normality”: Characteristics of the European and Latin American Situations]. Aktual’nye problemy Evropy, 2018, no. 3, pp. 85-112.

8. Kuznetsova E.E. Sotsial’naya politika v stranakh Latinskoi Ameriki v nachale XXI v.: preemstvennost’ i peremeny [Social Policy in Latin America at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Continuity and Change]. Latinskaya America, 2012, no. 6, pp. 14-20.

9. Ocampo J.A., Gomez-Arteaga N. Los sistemas de proteccion social, la redistribucion y el crecimiento en America Latina. Revista de la CEPAL, Santiago, 2017, no. 122, pp. 7-33.

10. Cecchini S., Atuesta B. Programas de transferencias condicionadas en America Latina y el Caribe. Tendencias de cobertura e inversion. CEPAL. Serie Politicas Sociales, 2017, no. 224. 82 p.

11. Panorama Social de America Latina 2018. CEPAL. Santiago, 2019. 227 p.

12. Panorama Social de America Latina 2016. CEPAL. Santiago, 2017. 290 p.

13. Krasil’shchikov V.A. Deindustrializatsiya, reindustrializatsiya i razvitie [Deindustrialisation, Reindustrialisation and Development]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2016, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 34-43. DOI:10.20542/0131-2227-2016-60-8-34-43

14. Salama P. Globalizacion commercial: desindustrializacion premature en America Latina e industrializacion en Asia. Comercio exterior, Mexico, 2012, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 34-44.

15. Panorama Social de America Latina 2017. CEPAL. Santiago, 2018. 205 p.

16. Salama P. Se redujo la desigualdad en America Latina? Nueva Sociedad, 2015, no. 258, pp. 85-95.

17. Steinberg F., Martinez J.P. La dificil coyuntura economica en America Latina. Available at: http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_es/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_es/zonas_es/economia+internacional/ari32-2016-steinberg-martinez-la-dificil-coyuntura-economica-en-america-latina (accessed 20.05.2020).

18. Nunez R. La paralisis reformista en America Latina. Available at: https://www.esglobal.org/la-paralisis-reformista-america-latina/ (accessed 12.05.2020).

19. Zovatto D. Esta America Latina preparada para un cambio de ciclo? Available at: https://elpais.com/elpais/2015/03/26/opinion/1427381976_529615.html (accesed 21.05.2020).

20. Latinobarometro. Informe 2013. Available at: http://www.latinobarometro.org/documentos/LATBD_INFORME_LB_2013.pdf (accessed 21.05.2020).

21. Nunes R. Generacion, acontecimiento, perspectiva. Pensar el cambio a partir de Brasil. Nueva Sociedad, 2014, no. 251, pp. 42-54.

22. Marcel M. No se han agotado las balas del Banco central para enfrentar esta crisis. Available at: https://www.latercera.com/pulso/noticia/mario-marcel-no-se-han-agotado-las-balas-del-banco-central-para-enfrentar-esta-crisis/HYNMPLLLZBDLHKUXIBUU6Q6ZII/ (accessed 08.04.2020).

23. D’yakova L.V. Medlennyi reformizm Sebast’yana Pin’ery [The Slow Reformism of Sebastian Pinera]. Latinskaya Amerika, 2019, no. 5, pp. 6-30.


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Dyakova L. Social Policy in Latin American Countries in the Early 21st Century: Opportunities and Limits. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2020, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 112-120. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2020-64-10-112-120



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.