Ecological Modernization in an Age of Globalization: the Role of Environmental NGOs

224
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-8-64-71
E. Burkova (lenchen007@rambler.ru),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article studies ecological modernization as a political practice of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) in Russia and abroad. The attention is paid to the political behavior of ENGOs as political actors in the contemporary environment of globalization era. ENGOs are described within the framework of organization theory. Displaying their performance in the modern politics, the article focuses on the concept of ecological flows and the theory of Globalized Integrated Networks. It also raises the question of interrelations between ENGOs and population, civil society activists. In addition, the paper addresses environmental politics and policy-making problem in modern Russia. Being ecological modernization agents as well as world politics actors, ENGOs function in a brand new manner. However, much depends on their profile. One of the main differences between ENGOs is an attitude to ecological and conservation science. On the other hand, their routines are not always directly based on science. This is true even for “collaboratives” – the most outstanding actors in the contemporary political arena, playing a crucial part in ecological modernization. Values, beliefs, even personal tastes and preferences form the basis of decision-making here. This results in overestimation of the so called charismatic species and landscapes (their concept is presented here, too). The specifics of ENGOs, namely, a wide independence from a nation state and an unpredictable mode of behavior, combined with irrationality of decisions (sometimes imaginary) based on beliefs and wisdoms not obvious to others, makes them inconvenient to many participants of a political process, particularly to nation states and their institutes. Thus incapable to predict their activities and react correctly to their routines, governments make efforts to neutralize them opposing their performance, but fail. This is true for Russia.

Keywords: environmental non-governmental organizations, ecological modernization, political behavior, political actor, political networks, Globalized Integrated Networks


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For citation:
Burkova E. Ecological Modernization in an Age of Globalization: the Role of Environmental NGOs. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2019, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 64-71. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-8-64-71



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