Armed Groups: Theory and Classification

840
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-6-84-92

A. Miroiu (andrei.miroiu@gmail.com)
Macquarie University, Department of Security Studies and Criminology, Australian Hearing Hub, 16 University Ave, Macquarie Park NSW 2109, Australia

Abstract. This paper argues in favor of a theory and classification of armed groups that sets them at the center of political and social sciences. By starting with the problem of order, it posits that without armed groups one cannot understand how stable societies form, function and reproduce themselves. It challenges the preeminence of concepts such as class and gender, which are seen as depicting later-formed social structures. It proposes a classification of armed groups based on their permanent or impermanent character, and the reasons for using violence, which are considered to be mostly extractive and ideological. Extraction could be internal and external, permanent or nonpermanent. Ideological armed groups are taken here to include religiously-motivated groups as well. The article also discusses armed groups operating within the state. The central argument is that the armed group is a fundamental unit of politics, order and functioning of a society. This essentially establishes that other forms of power are either derived from, rest on or at least suppose the support of armed groups. They transcend “normal” politics understood as peaceful periods in life of constituted communities. They can be outsiders, existing before and between the states. Armed groups precede classes and governments and do not need them to exist in order to continue their functioning. In this, they are to be understood as an elementary social structure. If so, consequences for social theory are substantial, as armed groups should in this case achieve the prominence that concepts such as state, class, social division of work or even kinship had until now.

Keywords: armed groups, states, political science, social sciences, violence, social order


REFERENCES

1. Kaplan R. D. The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York, Vintage, 2002. 198 p.

2. Kilcullen D. Out of the Mountains: The Coming Age of the Urban Guerrilla. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015. 342 p.

3. Layton P. Bringing the Transnational into ‘New Wars’: the Case of Islamic State. International Review of Social Research, 2015, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 191-201. DOI:10.1515/irsr-2015-0018

4. Simpson J. Risk Management Responses to Armed Non-State Actor Risk in Afghanistan. International Review of Social Research, 2015, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 156-166. DOI:10.1515/irsr-2015-0018

5. Raufer X. New World Disorder, New Terrorisms: New Threats for Europe and the Western World. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1999, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 30-51. DOI:10.1080/09546559908427530

6. Krahmann E., ed. New Threats and New Actors in International Security. Amsterdam, Springer, 2005. 230 p.

7. Lutz J., Lutz B. Global Terrorism. London, Routledge, 2013. 392 p.

8. Nagl J. A. Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife. New York, Praeger, 2002. 249 p.

9. Vinci A. Armed Groups and the Balance of Power: The International Relations of Terrorists, Warlords and Insurgents. London, Routledge, 2008. 167 p.

10. Boot M. Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present. New York, WW Norton, 2013. 784 p.

11. U.S. Army Field Manual 3–24: Counterinsurgency. Headquarters, Department of the Army. Washington DC, 2006. 280 p.

12. Kilcullen D. Counterinsurgency. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010. 272 p.

13. Kelly J.D., Jauregui B., Mitchell S.T., Walton J., eds. Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2010. 408 p.

14. Porch D. Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013. 445 p.

15. Kalyvas S. N. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006. 508 p.

16. Hobbes T. Leviathan. London, Dent, 1983 (1651). 592 p.

17. Weber M. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1978. 2 vols., 1469 p.

18. Bloch M. La societe feodale: les classes et le gouvernement des hommes. Paris, Albin Michel, 1940. 287 p.

19. Le Goff J. La civilisation de l’Occident medieval. Paris, Arthaud, 1964. 366 p.

20. Hamalainen P. The Comanche Empire. New Haven, Yale University Press, 2008. 500 p.

21. Gump J. O. The Dust Rose Like Smoke: The Subjugation of the Zulu and the Sioux. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 2016. 178 p.

22. Mantran R. Histoire de l’Empire ottoman. Paris, Fayard, 1989. 810 p.

23. Darwin J. The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009. 800 p.

24. Inalcik H. The Ottoman Empire: 1300–1600. Dreadfort, Hachette UK, 2013. 257 p.

25. Miroiu A., Ungureanu R. S. Armed Non-State Actors as a Distinct Research Topic. International Review of Social Research, 2015, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 153-155. DOI:10.1515/irsr-2015-0014

26. Marx K., Engels F. The Communist Manifesto. London, Penguin, 2002 (1848). 20 p.

27. Engels F. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. London, Penguin, 2010 (1884). 219 p.

28. Scott J. Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis. The American Historical Review, 1986, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1053-1075. DOI:10.2307/1864376

29. Anderson B.S., Zinsser J.P. A History of Their Own. Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present. New York, Harper & Row, 1989. 608 p.

30. James L. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. London, Macmillan, 1994. 714 p.

31. Bracamonte J., Spencer D. Strategy and Tactics of the Salvadoran FMLN Guerrillas: Last Battle of the Cold War, Blueprint for Future Conflicts. Santa Barbara, Greenwood, 1995. 197 p.

32. Priestland D. The Red Flag: Communism and the Making of the Modern World. London, Penguin, 2009. 675 p.

33. Dickie J. Cosa Nostra. A History of the Sicilian Mafia. London, Palgrave, 2014. 501 p.

34. Riley-Smith J. The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus, c. 1050–1310. London, Macmillan, 1967. 553 p.

35. Tyerman C. God’s War: a New History of the Crusades. Boston, Harvard University Press, 2006. 1040 p.

36. Biro D. State-Failure or Polity-Creation? World Politics beyond State-Centrism. PhD thesis. Canberra, Australian National University, 2010. 321 p.

37. Underwood P. “Pirates, Vikings and Teutonic Knights”. Armed Groups: Studies in National Security, Counterterrorism, and Counterinsurgency. Norwitz J., ed. Washington Government Printing Office, 2008. 501 p.

38. Schnekener U. Spoilers or Governance Actors? Engaging Armed Non-State Groups in Areas of Limited Statehood. SBFGovernance Working Paper Series, 2009, no. 21 (October), pp. 1-36.

39. Wilkinson M. Negotiating with the Other: Centre-Periphery Perceptions, Peacemaking Policies and Pervasive Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. International Review of Social Research, 2015, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 179-190. DOI:10.1515/irsr-2015-0017

40. Syme R. The Roman Revolution. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002 (1939). 524 p.

41. Heather P. Empires and Barbarians. London, Pan, 2009. 734 p.

42. Darwin J. After Tamerlane: the Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400–2000. London, Penguin, 2008. 592 p.

43. Schlichte K. The Limits of Armed Contestation: Power and Domination in Armed Groups. Geoforum, 2012, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 716-724.

44. Huntington S. The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Boston, Harvard University Press, 1957. 534 p.

45. Hobsbawm E. Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1959. 202 p.

46. Braithwaite R. Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan 1979–1989. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013). 432 p.


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Miroiu A. Armed Groups: Theory and Classification. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2019, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 84-92. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-6-84-92



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 5
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Are There Any Ways to Break Through the Korean Nuclear Impasse?
  • Contemporary U.S. Taiwan Policy: Balancing on the Edge
  • The Gulf Monarchies’ Vision of the Global Order Transformations and the Russian Place in It
  • At Post-Soviet Space
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.