Post-Soviet States of Central Asia in China's Policies

886
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-5-101-108

D. Malysheva (dsheva@mail.ru),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation 


Abstract

The growing role of China is one of the most notable trends in the modern development of the post-Soviet Central Asia. As a world power the PRC has established close contacts with many other countries and regions in the framework of its global projects (“The Silk Road Economic Belt”, “One Belt, One Road” and more). These projects, which include not only a logistic component, but also infrastructure, industry, trade, services, etc. in the regions where Chinese initiatives are applied, allow Central Asian countries to attract investments that are so necessary for their development and modernization. As far as China is concerned, there are opportunities to expand its economic and political influence in the Central Asian region. A number of multilateral projects and development strategies are linked with “Belt and Road”: the pro-Russian “Eurasian Economic Union”, the Mongolian “Prairie Road”, “Nurly Zhol” of Kazakhstan, “Two Corridors and One Ring” of Vietnam, “Vision 2030” of Saudi Arabia, the Turkish “Middle Corridor Initiative” (which suggests linking China to Europe through Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, the Caspian Sea and Turkey) and other. All this allows the PRC to expand its global and regional positions. This is particularly evident in the regions of South and Southeast Asia. As for the political strategy of China in Central Asia, it is formed by Beijing on the basis of awareness of its national security challenges in the troubled Xinjiang region. Economic and political interests play an important role in positive assessment of the Chinese factor by a significant part of the political elite and representatives of the business community in Central Asian countries, who believe that without attracting foreign investment, using foreign practices and technologies, these states cannot count on qualitative development or improvement of their socioeconomic situation. But if the Central Asian elites consider the PRC primarily as an important economic and political partner, in the public perception, the Chinese factor is often presented as a threat. The development of economic cooperation with Central Asian states can lead to a situation where China, gradually strengthening its presence in this post-Soviet region, builds here a system of its own domination. The “multi-vector” approach also hinders the regional cooperation which is so necessary for the Central Asian countries to become equal partners in different integration projects, including those initiated by such a major global player like China


Keywords

the post-Soviet Central Asia, China, “One Belt, One Road” Initiative, multi-vector policy 


REFERENCES

1. International Forum “One Belt, One Way” (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/54491 (accessed 14.05.2017).

2. Highlights of Xi’s Report to 19th CPC National Congress. Xinhua, 18.10.2017. Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017–10/18/c_136688994.htm (accessed 18.10.2017).

3. Escobar P. All under Heaven, China’s Challenge to the Westphalian System. Asia Times, 15.01.2019. Available at: https://www.opednews.com/articles/All-under-Heaven-China-s-by-Pepe-Escobar-China-Investment-Corp_China-Politics_History_International-190113–202.html (accessed 10.01.2019).

4. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Opportunities and Risks. Asia Report, 29.06.2018. Available at: https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-asia/pakistan/297-china-pakistan-economic-corridor-opportunities-and-risks (accessed 08.01.2019).

5. Ruan Zongze. Belt and Road Initiative: A New Frontier for Win-Win Cooperation. China International Studies, July/August 2017. Available at: http://www.ciis.org.cn/english/2017–07/21/content_39050638.htm (accessed 21.07.2017).

6. Disian G. Geoekonomika Kitaya i “novaya kholodnaya voina” [China’s Geo-economics and the “New Cold War”]. Valday Notes, November 2018, no. 96. 15 p.

7. Abi-Habib Maria. China’s ‘Belt and Road’ Plan in Pakistan Takes a Military Turn. The New York Times, 19.12.2018. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/19/world/asia/pakistan-china-belt-road-military.html (accessed 28.12.2018).

8. Shpunt A. Operatsiya “Krasnoe more”: novoe litso flota Kitaya dlya Blizhnego Vostoka [Operation “Red Sea”: New Faces of the Chinese Navy for the Middle East. Available at: https://regnum.ru/news/2538585.html (accessed 16.12.2018).

9. China Recognizes Afghan Taliban as Political Force. The Daily Outlook Afghanistan, 24.01.2019. Available at: http://www.outlookafghanistan.net/national_detail.php?post_id=22800 (accessed 23.01.2019).

10. Blank S.A Chinese Base in Central Asia. The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, 12.04.2018. Available at: https://cacianalyst.org/publications/analytical-articles/item/13507-a-chinese-base-in-central-asia.html (accessed 08.10.2018).

11. Ekonomicheskii koridor Shelkovogo puti i Kazakhstan: sostoyanie i perspektivy [The Economic Corridor of the Silk Road and Kazakhstan: Condition and Prospects]. Almaty, Research Institute for International and Regional Cooperation at the Kazakh-German University, 2015. 132 p.

12. Central Asia: Who will Win the Geopolitical Battle? (In Russ.) Available at: https://news-front.info/2018/12/10/tsentralnaya-aziya-kto-oderzhit-pobedu-v-geopoliticheskojbitve (accessed 10.12.2018.).

13. Overchenko M. Kak Kitai otvoyevyvayet u Rossii Tsentral’nuyu Aziyu [How China Conquers Central Asia from Russia]. Vedomosti, 25.10.2015. Available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2015/10/26/614254-kitai-aziyu-rossii (accessed 16.01.2019).

14. China Ranked First in the Foreign Trade Turnover of Uzbekistan (In Russ.) Available at: https://eadaily.com/ru/news/2019/01/23/vo-vneshnetorgovom-oboroteuzbekistana-pervoe-mesto-zanyal-kitay (accessed 23.01.2019).

15. Uzbekistan-2050 (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.ca-portal.ru/article:41184 (accessed 01.03.2018).

16. In 2017 Turkmenistan Supplied over 30 Billion Cubic Meters of Gas to China (In Russ.) Available at: https://eadaily.com/ru/news/2018/02/08/za-2017-godturkmeniya-postavila-v-kitay-svyshe-30-mlrd-kubometrov-gaza (accessed 08.02.2018).

17. Hurley J., Morris S., Portelance G. Examining the Debt Implications of the Belt and Road Initiative from a Policy Perspective. Washington, Center for Global Development, Policy Paper 121, March 2018. 36 p.

18. Uzbekistan and Four Pins (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.fergana.agency/articles/104150 (accessed 10.01.2019).

19. Kazakh Expert Told about the Problems of the Chinese Project “One Belt, One Way” (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.ca-irnews.com/ru/latestnews/152-мнение-эксперта/56109-казахский-эксперт-рассказал-о-проблемах-китайского-проекта-“один-пояс-один-путь” (accessed 13.12.2018).

20. Rivals for Authority in Tajikistan’s Gorno-Badakhshan. Available at: https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/central-asia/tajikistan/b87-rivals-authority-tajikistans-gorno-badakhshan (accessed 10.01.2019).

21. Uzbekistan will Help India to Gain a Foothold in Central Asia (In Russ.) Available at: http://casp-geo.ru/uzbekistan-pomozhet-indii-zakrepitsya-v-tsentralnoj-azii (accessed 01.02.2019). 


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Malysheva D. Post-Soviet States of Central Asia in China's Policies. World Eсonomy and International Relations, 2019, vol. 63, No 5, pp. 101-108. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-5-101-108



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2022, vol. 66, No. 9
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Peace Process: on Substantive Definition 
  • Global Imbalances: Evolution of Approaches 
  • The Influence of Brexit on the UK Political Elites Circulation
  • Islamic Vector in Russian Foreign Policy 
Submit an Article
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.