V. Khoros (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation;
B. Dolgov (email@example.com),
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 12, Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation;
Z. Solov’eva (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 12, Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation
The commentaries of participants of the seminar on M. Volodina’s paper “Modernization in North Africa” are summarized in the article. The authors analyze modernization problems of the North African region in different dimensions. First dimension is a civilizational one. The North Africa belongs to the center of the Islamic civilization. That is why the question is important to what extent the Islamic values and institutions can be integrated into the process of modernization. Up to the present, Islamic organizations in the region have been rather opponents of a secular power than its allies (except, probably, the Turkish case). This can be seen in the region. The process of modernization in these countries (Tunisia, Egypt and other) could not resolve difficult economic and social problems. As a result, the protest movement of the so-called “Arab Spring” appeared. The Islamic political forces made attempts to take power, but every time failed. However, the secular political leaders, mainly authoritarian, also were not successful in their efforts to change the situation and to promote economic and social modernization as well as political one. Besides, the danger of the Islamic terrorism – internal or international – remains a difficult problem for almost all states of the region. At last, nowadays, the catch-up modernization in developing countries includes an ecological aspect as a factor of balanced progress. Therefore, an adequate ecological policy and “green economy” are necessary for this region because of its climate and resource characteristics. The first steps in this direction are already taken, mainly in Morocco, and this case may set the pattern for others.
North Africa, Islamic values and institutions, modernization, “green economy”
1. Miloslavskii G.V. Integratsionnye protsessy v musul’manskom mire (Ocherki islamskoi tsivilizatsii) [Integration Processes in the Muslim World (Sketchers on Islamic Civilization)]. Moscow, Nauka, GRVL, 1991. 190 ð.
2. Islamskaya tsivilizatsiya v globaliziruyushchemsya mire (po materialam konferentsii) [Islamic Civilization in the Globalizing World (on the Base of the Conference Materials]. Khoros V.G., ed. Moscow, IMEMO, 2011. 336 p.
3. Lewis B. The Crisis of Islam. London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003. 144 ð.
4. Rodison M. Islam et le capitalisme. Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1966. 302 p.
5. Eickelman D.F. The Middle East. An Anthropological Approach. New York, Englewood Cliffs, 1981. 336 p.
6. Ghadbian N. Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World. Boulder (Cal.), Oxford, Westview press, 1997. 186 p.
7. Khoros V.G. Opyt nekapitalisticheskogo razvitiya osvobodivshikhsya gosudarstv: teoriya i praktika [Experience of Non-capitalist Development of the Liberated States: Theory and Practice]. Revolutsionnaya demokratiya i kommunisty Vostoka [Revolutionary Democracy and Communists of the East]. Moscow, Nauka, 1984, pp. 112-157.
8. Hiro D. The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism. New York, Routledge, 1989. 334 ð.
9. Ahmed A.S. Discovering Islam. Making Sense of Muslim History and Society. London, New York, Routledge, 1988. 251 ð.
10. Beji Caid Essebsi promet d’etre “le president de tous les Tunisiens”. Available at: http://www.lemonde.fr/tunisie/article/2014/12/12/les-deux-camps-revendiquent-le-victoire-tn-tunisie_4544506_1466522.html (accessed 07.10.2016).
11. Elections municipales en Tunisie: l’Instance electorale a enfin son president (2017). Available at: http://www.jeuneafrique.com/493055/politique/elections-municipal-en-tunisie-instance-electoral-a-enfin-son-president (accessed 14.11.2017).
12. Lazar M., Nehad S.-M. L’Algerie aujourd’hui. Paris, Michalon Editeur, 2014. 299 ð.
13. Les elections legislatives algeriennes de 2017. Available at: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89lections_l%C3%A9gislatives_alg%C3%A9riennes_de_2017 (accessed 28.12.2017).
14. Egorin A.Z. Sverzhenie Muammara Kaddafi [The Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi]. Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, 2012. 431 ð.
15. 2018 EPI Results. Country Profiles. Available at: https://epi.envirocenter.yale.edu/epi-topline (accessed 21.11.2018).
16. World Bank Open Data. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.ADVN.ZS?view=chart (accessed at 21.11.2018).
17. El Badraoui M.H., Berdai M. Adaptation du systeme eau-energie au changement climatique. Rapport final. Available at: http://planbleu.org/sites/default/files/upload/files/3-1-FR_Rapport_eau-energie_Maroc.pdf (accessed 07.10.2017).
18. Moroccan Water Strategy. Available at: https://yandex.ru/search/?lr=213&text=Moroccan%20Water%20Strategy&p=1 (accessed 21.11.2018).
19. The Green Morocco Plan: An Innovative Strategy of Agricultural Development. Available at: http://www.emwis.org/thematicdirs/news/2014/12/green-morocco-plan-innovative-strategy-agricultural-development (accessed 7.10.2016).
20. Morocco. Nationally Determined Contribution under the UNFCCC. Available at: https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/Morocco%20First/Morocco%20First%20NDC-English.pdf (accessed 21.11.2018).
Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX