T. Andreeva (email@example.com),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997, Russian Federation
The article is about growth of unexpected popularity of the British populist right-wing party – the UK Independence party (Ukip) and its role in the success of the idea of a UK exit from the EU (Brexit) at the British referendum on June 23, 2016. The author answers the question why in comparison with the rest of European countries the right-wing parties were not popular and successful in Great Britain in the 20th century but at the beginning of the 21st century one of these british parties has suddenly gained broad popularity and played an important pole in the outcomes of the referendum. There is a definition what parties can be called populist. There is also information about what a phenomenon of “insular psychology” is and how it prevents the British from supporting populist right- and left-wing parties. Scrutinizing key milestones of economic and political steps of different UK governments – from M. Thatcher’s governments to the Cameron-Clegg coalition government – the author highlights the interconnection between social fragmentation, marginalization of British society, the loss of its self-identification and the increasing popularity of the Ukip ideas of Brexit. The reasons are also given why Ukip has managed to persuade the major part of British society to vote for Brexit. Several of them are: the discontent of people with the UK active participation in the EU integration and the overwhelming flow of migrants from other European countries; the memory of Great Britain’s imperial history and the persistent high level of national identity which are the main source of right-wing populism and nationalism in the country; the consumerism of the main Britain’s political parties which has lead to the loss of their ability to transmit the needs and wishes of different social strata in the House of Commons; the resentment of people over the government austerity policy and the lack of confidence among the British to the expert and governmenal recipes for resolving of economic problems. The study examines two Ukip electoral manifestos and its pre-referendum campaign.
Great Britain, Brexit, EU, right-wing populist parties, UKIP
1. Phenomenon of right and left populism in the EU countries. The analytical report made by the DEPR (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.imemo.ru/files/File/ru/materials/Fenomen_doklad1.pdf (accessed 21.01.2018).
2. Peregudov S.P. Tetcher i tetcherizm [Thatcher and Thatcherism]. Moscow, Nauka, 1996. 301 p.
3. Gromyko Al.A. Velikobritaniya: posle zakhoda solntsa [Britain: after the sunset]. Russia in global affairs, 2005, no. 6. Available at: https://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/n_5980 (accessed 12.11.2018).
4. Tishkov V.A., Filippova E.I., eds. Kul’turnaya slozhnost’ sovremennykh natsii [Cultural difficulty of modern nations]. Moscow, Political Encyclopedia, 2016. 384 p.
5. Carvalho J. Impact of Extreme Right Parties on Immigration Policy. Comparing Britain, France and Italy. London, Routledge. 2014. 248 p.
6. UKIP Manifesto “Empowering the People”, April 2010. Newton Abbot: UKIP, 2010. Available at: http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/ge10/man/parties/UKIPManifesto2010.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).
7. UKIP Manifesto “Believe in Britain”, 2015. Newton Abbot: UKIP, 2015. Available at: https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/ukipdev/pages/1103/attachments/original/1429295050/UKIPManifesto2015.pdf?1429295050 (accessed 12.11.2018).
8. UK: Migrants. Migration News, January 2013, vol. 20, no. 1. Available at: https://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=3808 (accessed 12.11.2018).
9. Welsh Election 2016: Labour Just Short as UKIP Wins Seats. 6 May 2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/election-2016-wales-36207410 (accessed 21.01.2018).
10. Eysenck J., Kirk A., Yorke H. UK Elections 2016 – Results in Full, Map and Find out Who Won in Your Local Area. The Daily Telegraph, 09.05.2016.
11. Baggini J. A Very British Populism. Counterpoint, 2013. Available at: http://counterpoint.uk.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/507_CP_RRadical_UK_Web.pdf (accessed 21.01.2018).
12. UKIP Referendum Campaign to Reach “Real People”. 04.09.2015. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/ukpolitics-34155586 (accessed 21.01.2018).
13. UKIP’s Nigel Farage: I Support Both EU “Out” Campaigns. 11.10.2015. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/ukpolitics-34499315 (accessed 21.01.2018).
14. Nigel Farage Defends Linking Brussels Attacks and EU Migration Rules. 23.03.2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-35879670 (accessed 21.01.2018).
15. Nigel Farage Says David Cameron Is a “Eurofanatic”. 24.05.2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eureferendum-36372375 (accessed 21.01.2018).
16. EU Referendum: Ethnic Minorities Could Be Key, Says UKIP. 26 May 2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/ukpolitics-eu-referendum-35403887 (accessed 21.01.2018).
17. Net Migration to UK Rises to 333,000 – Second Highest on Record. 26 May 2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36382199 (accessed 21.01.2018).
18. Stubbs H. Nigel Farage Claims Migrant Sex Attacks Will Be “Nuclear Bomb” of EU Referendum Campaign. The Independent, 05.06.2016.
19. EU Referendum: Immigration Target “Impossible” in EU, Vote Leave Says. 20.06.2016. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-eu-referendum-36573220 (accessed 21.01.2018).
20. Hughes L. Paul Nuttall Says Ukip Will ‘Replace Labour’ After Succeeding Nigel Farage As Party’s New Leader. The Daily Telegraph, 28.11.2016.
Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX