Chinese Partnership Strategy: Practice and its Conceptualisation (19932018)

757
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-3-83-93

E. Grachikov (egrachikov@gmail.com),
Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., Moscow 117198, Russian Federation



Abstract

The article deals with „partnership relations“ (huoban guanxi 伙伴关系), the main content of China's diplomacy from 1993 to 2018, which were established with 100 countries in five macro-regions of the world. The global "network of relations" created allows Beijing to use the "pivot states” (zhidian guojia 支点国家) to protect its core interests, and the "broker states” (jiedian guojia 结点国家) – to expand international cooperation resources. Recently, Chinese scientists have succeeded in composing a "matrix of partnerships” (in the form of tables presented in the article) with a strictly hierarchical structure of partner countries location in accordance with Chinese criteria for their significance. The author has aspired to present China’s logic of building diplomatic strategies in the fullest possible manner, as well as to disclose the content of the topic in the context of formation of Chinese diplomacy, with the extensive use of sources published in the PRC over the last decade. The methodological toolkit employed in the article is the process approach proposed by Qin Yaqing, inscribed in the theoretical pattern of process constructivism (guocheng jiangou zhuyi) and normative approach. This analytical format is used so far only in Chinese studies of world politics. The author concludes that global governance built on relations is China's foreign policy practice, which often acts as an alternative to the Western global governance based on rules. The twenty-five years of experience in partnerships built on relationship management allowed China to build a holistic global diplomatic network, which is distinguished by long-term tasks, flexible forms and inclusive value orientations, which is now considered as bringing Chinese world view into the modern system of international relations. As can be seen from the article, these value orientations of China, meanwhile, are not always perceived by other countries as sufficient and necessary to replace the existing universal values of the world system.


Keywords

China's diplomacy, partnership, diplomatic strategies, process constructivism, pivot states, broker states


REFERENCES

1. Pang Xun, Liu Lida, Ma Stephanie. China’s Networking Strategy for Seeking Great Power Status. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 2017, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-29.

2. Krivokhizh S.V. Publichnaya diplomatiya Kitaiskoi Narodnoi Respubliki: stanovlenie i razvitie [Public Diplomacy of People’s Republic of China]. Cand. Sci. diss. (Hist.). St. Petersburg State University, 2014]. Available at: https://disser.spbu.ru/disser2/disser/krivohij_public_diplomacy_disser.pdf (accessed 10.06.2017).

3. Leksyutina Ya.V. Ekonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya v 21 veke [Economic Diplomacy of China in 21st century]. Problemy Dal’nego Vostoka, 2015, no. 2, pp. 24-37.

4. Tsvyk A.V. Ekonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya: osnovnye cherty [Chinese Economic Diplomacy: main features]. Regionalnaya economica i upravleniye, 2013, no. 1 (33), pp. 24-37.

5. Nikitina M.G., Pyzhyk S.A. Neftyanaya diplomatiya Kitaiskoi Narodnoi Respubliki [Oil diplomacy of People’s Republic of China]. Uchenyye zapiski Tavricheskogo natsionalnogo universiteta imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. Seriya “Economica i upravleniye” [Scientific notes of Tauride national University named after V.I. Vernadsky. Series “Economics and management”]. 2014, vol. 27 (66), no. 1, pp. 94-100.

6. Votintseva K.A. Kul’turnaya diplomatiya Kitaya [Cultural Diplomacy of China]. Gumanitarnye nauchnye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 11. Available at: http://human.snauka.ru/2014/11/8065 (accessed 13.11.2018).

7. Bogaturov A.D., ed. Sovremennaya mirovaya politika. Prikladnoi analiz [Modern World Politics. Applied Analysis]. 2nd edition, Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2010. 592 p.

8. Kozykina N.V., Muratshina K.G. Osobennosti diplomatii sovremennogo Kitaya. Uchebnoe posobie [Diplomatic Features of Modern China. Study guide]. Mikhailenko V.I., ed. Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural’skogo universiteta, 2017. Available at: http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/53214/1/978-5-7996-2135-3_2017.pdf (accessed 13.11.2018).

9. Portyakov V.Ya. Partnerstvo kak instrument sovremennoi vneshnei politiki KNR [Partnership as a tool of modern Chinese foreign policy]. Obshchestvo i gosudarstvo v Kitae: XLI nauchnaya konferentsiya [Society and state in China: XLI scientific conference]. Institut vostokovedeniya RAN, Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura, 2011, pp. 204-207.

10. Hamilton Daniel S. The American Way of Partnership, Working Paper 6. Madrid/Brussels: FRDE/EGMONT, June 2014. Available at: http://ibdigital.uib.es/greenstone/collect/cd2/index/assoc/fride001/1.dir/fride0011.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

11. Tellis Ashley J. Seeking Alliances and Partnership: The Long Road to Confederationism in U. S. Grand Strategy. Strategic Asia 2014–15: U. S. Alliances and Partnership at the Center of Global Power. Tellis Ashley J., Denmark Abraham M., Chaffin Greg, eds. Seattle, The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2014. Available at: https://www.nbr.org/publication/strategicasia-2014-15-u-s-alliances-and-partnerships-at-the-center-of-global-power (accessed 12.11.2018).

12. Parameswaran Prashanth. Explaining US Strategic Partnerships in the Asia-Pacific Region: Origins, Developments and Prospects. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 2014, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 262-289.

13. Kumar Satish, et al. India’s Strategic Partners: A Comparative Assessment. New Delhi, Foundation for National Security Research, 2011. Available at: http://www.fnsr.org/files/Indias_Strategic.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

14. Strategic Partnership as an Instrument of EU Foreign Policy, Workshop Report, November 2015. Available at: http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2015/12/Strategic-Partnership-Workshop-Report-final.pdf?type=pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

15. Renard Thomas. The EU Strategic Partnerships Review: Ten Guiding Principles. Policy Brief, no. 2, April 2012. Available at: https://www.ies.be/files/private/28)%20Renard%20-20Ten%20Guiding%20Principles.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

16. Renard Thomas. Strategy Wanted: The European Union and Strategic Partnerships, Security Policy Brief, no. 13, September 2010. Available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/15061/1/SPB13-EU-Strategic-Partnerships.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

17. Wuthnow Joel. Chinese Diplomacy and the UN Security Council: Beyond the Veto. London, New York, Routledge, 2013. 385 p.

18. Hartig Falk. Chinese Public Diplomacy: The Rise of the Confucius Institute. London, New York, Routledge, 2016. 216 p.

19. Gao Jia, Ingram Catherine, Kee Pookong eds. Global Media and Public Diplomacy in Sino-Western Relations. London, New York, Routledge, 2017. 218 p.

20. Zhang Xiaotong, Wang Hongyu, et al. Chinese Economic Diplomacy: The PRC’s Growing International Influence in the 21st Century. Beijing, Beijing Alain Charles Advertising Limited, 2015. 236 p.

21. Oyen Meredith. The Diplomacy of Migration: Transnational Lives and the Making of U.S. – Chinese Relations in the Cold War. Ithaca, London, Cornell University Press, 2015. 308 p.

22. Karrar Hasan H. The New Silk Road Diplomacy: China’s Central Asian Foreign Policy since the Cold War. Vancouver, UBC Press, 2009. 252 p.

23. Keevak Michael. Embassies to China: Diplomacy and Cultural Encounters Before the Opium Wars. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 162 p.

24. Solomon Richard H., Chas W. Freeman Jr. Chinese Negotiating Behavior: Pursuing Interests Through “Old Friends”. Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2016. 204 p.

25. Hall Todd H. Emotional Diplomacy: Official Emotion on the International Stage. Ithaca, London, Cornell University Press, 2015. 264 p.

26. Cooper John F. China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 283 p.

27. Jian B. M. China’s Soft Power Diplomacy in South Asia: Myth or Reality? Lanham, Maryland, Lexington Books, 2017. 172 p.

28. Reeves Jeffrey. Imperialism and the Middle Kingdom: The Xi Jinping administration’s peripheral diplomacy with developing states. Third World Quarterly, 2018, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 976-998.

29. Pan Zhongqi, ed. Conceptual Gaps in China-EU Relations: Global Governance, Human Rights and Strategic Partnerships. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 246 p.

30. Struver Georg. China’s Partnership Diplomacy: International Alignment Based on Interests or Ideology. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Mach 2017, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 31-65.

31. Men Honghua, Liu Xiaoyang. Chinese Partnership Strategy: Assessment and Perspective. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 65-95 (In Chin.)

32. Su Ge. Comprehensive Analysis of Xi Jinping’s Ideas on Diplomatic Strategies. International Studies, 2016, no. 5. (In Chin.) Available at: http://www.ciis.org.cn/gyzz/2016-09/26/content_9057017.htm (accessed 13.11.2018).

33. Men Honghua. China's Rise and its strategic response. International Review, 2004, no. 3, pp. 9-16 (In Chin.)

34. Li Baojun. Introduction to Diplomacy of Modern China. Beijing, Bejing University Press, 2005. 275 p. (In Chin.)

35. Men Honghua. Introduction to Chinese International Strategy. Shanghai, People’s Publishing House, 2010 (In Chin.) Available at: https://item.jd.com/27137532830.html (accessed 13.11.2018).

36. Sun Xuefeng, Ding Lu. Explaining the Upgrading of China's Partnership: Pivot Partners, Broker Partners and Beyond. World Economics and Politics, 2017, no. 2, pp. 54-76 (In Chin.)

37. Cao Dejun. The Relational Theory of International Politics in Chinese Context: Concepts, Approaches and Challenges. World Economics and Politics, 2017, no.2, pp. 36-53 (In Chin.)

38. Qin Yaqing. Culture and global thought: Chinese international theory in the making. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, 2013, no.100, pp. 67-89.

39. Qin Yaqing. Relations as basis and Process construction: Chinese Conceptions’ entry to IR Theory. Chinese Social Sciences, 2009, vol. 4, pp. 69-86 (In Chin.)

40. Qin Yaqing. Relations and Process: Cultural Foundations of Chinese IR Theory. Shanghai, People’s Publishing House, 2012. 274 p. (In Chin.)

41. Qin Yaqing, Amitav Acharya. New Development in Theory of International Politics. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 4-15 (In Chin.)

42. Mo Shengkai. Power Transition and Preventive Cooperation: The Path to China-U.S. New Relation from the Perspective of Processual Constructivism. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 16-40 (In Chin.)

43. Chen Weiguang, Wang Yan. Co-constructing the “One-Belt-One-Road”: An Analytical Framework on Relation-Based Governance and Rule-Based Governance. World Economics and Politics, 2016, no. 6, pp. 93-112 (In Chin.)

44. Ang Sisi. Relation-based governance and system-based governance. World Politics and Global Governance: Essays on International Relations. Qin Yaqing, ed. Beijing, World Knowledge Press, 2014, pp. 334-349 (In Chin.)

45. Xie Jun and Chen Qingqing. B&R faces ASEAN uncertainty. Global Times, 05.07.2018, p. 4.

46. Ge Hongliang. Criticism shouldn’t disrupt China-Singapore ties. Global Times, 05.07.2018, p. 5.


Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Grachikov E. Chinese Partnership Strategy: Practice and its Conceptualisation (19932018) . Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2019, vol. 63, No 3, pp. 83-93. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-3-83-93



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed
 
Current Issue
2020, vol. 64, No. 9

Topical Themes of the Issue:

  • World Energy after the Pandemic
  • Developing Countries in the Political Economy of the Post-Coronavirus World
  • The Prospects for Settlement of North Korean Nuclear Problem in View of the Presidential Elections in the USA 
  • EU Single Financial Market: Illusion or Reality?
  • Consequences of the Civil War in Syria and Ways of Overcoming Them
View This Issue (2020, vol. 64, No. 9)
Submit an Article

Dear readers!
Please note that free access to full-text issues of the Journal is being opened at our WEB-site after 6 months of the date of publications. Currently, the releases of 2015–2018 are available for free. The work on deepening the open archive of full-text issues will be continued.

Dear readers!
This is to inform the researchers of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations that electronic version of the 4-nd issue of 2019 of French magazine Politique étrangère is now available. Those who are interested, please personally address to the editorial staff of MEMO Journal (room 18-17) with an electronic media (e-mailing is not possible because of technical reasons).

NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.

“Civilization processes of modern development” is a new rubric opened by MEMO Journal in 2020. It will be devoted to the analysis of the influence of civilizational factors and inter-civilizational interactions on the political and socio-economic development of the world at whole, regions and countries.

“Africa today and tomorrow”The rubric devoted to contemporary issues of Africa which is attracting growing interest of the world's leading actors. We plan to publish the articles analyzing the status of statehood, socio-economic and political development of the countries of Black continent, as well as the integration processes between them.

Dear colleagues, authors and readers!

We kindly request you to turn to editor-in-chief and executive secretary directly concerning reviewing scientific publications in our journal. Only editor-in-chief takes decision on order and publication the reviews!

CONTEST!

"World Eonomy and International Relations" announces a contest for the best joint academic publications of domestic and foreign researchers and experts in topical issues of the world economy and international relations. The winners will be selected according to the results of peer reviewing and discussion at the Editorial Board. The articles will be published in priority order.

SUBSCRIBE TO THE JOURNAL

The print version of “World Economy and International Relations” journal is distributed by advance subscription only, and is not offered for retail sale. To subscribe please address to any post office in Russia by referring to the Federal Postal Service Union Catalogue, section “ARSMI”, the journal index is 70542. The subscription may be made for the whole subscription period or starting from any nearest available month for desired number of issues.

To purchase the full-text electronic version of the journal’s issue/article please address to the WEB portal of Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.ru or URL: https://press.gaugn.ru/.

In journal
Years
2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 |

The author’s opinions may not coincide with the position of editorial