V. Maltseva (email@example.com),
Ural State University of Economics, 62, 8 Marta Str., 620144 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation;
D. Chupina (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Ural State University of Economics, 62, 8 Marta Str., 620144 Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
Potentially, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a major driver for regulatory shift both in EU-US and global agri-food trade. The EU and the USA produce and export up to 20% of global agri-food products, however bilateral trade is impeded with numerous tariff and non-tariff barriers. Tariff barriers on agricultural transatlantic trade are relatively low at first sight: average MFN applied tariff on imports into the US doesn’t exceed 7% and 14% into the EU. These averages hide significant tariff peaks in sensitive products (especially, dairy and meat sector), various non-ad valorem duties, and limited number of duty-free tariff lines. NTMs are the key barriers to transatlantic trade, ad valorem averages of which are more than 50%, while the USA initiate more than 3 times more NTMs than the EU. NTMs mainly cover agricultural raw materials. However their impact on trade varies from completely restrictive for meat and “sand-in-the-wheels” effect for fruits and vegetables. Non-tariff regulation in the EU and the US is dominated by SPS and TBT measures which mainly arise from significant divergence of market regulation practices in both parties. Agricultural agenda of the TTIP (according to EU negotiating texts) goes beyond conventional RTA’s market access agenda and includes not only tariff elimination, but also commitments in TBT and SPS which aim to achieve coherence, and even domestic subsidies. Both the US and the EU have recent mega-RTA experience but neither the TPP nor the CETA were an agreement between dissimilar parties with equal bargaining power. Nevertheless, the EU demonstrated more flexibility while the US managed to lobby “American-style” approach to regulation of genetically modified products and food and beverages with geographical indication. Briefly, the TTIP is an ambitious project with potentially far-reaching regional and global impacts. Still, these spillovers are limited to the scope and depth of the current agenda, dramatic regulatory divergence and cooling of EU-US relations.
Acknowledgements. The research is supported by RFBR (project № 17-37-01004).
trade barriers, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), European Union, United States, agricultural trade, tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers
1. Kondrat’eva N.B. O sud’be Transatlanticheskogo torgovogo i investitsionnogo partnerstva ES–SShA [The fate of the negotiations on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership EU–USA]. Contemporary Europe, 2017, no. 1(73), pp. 138-142. DOI:10.15211/soveurope120173844
2. Poluektov A. B. Transatlanticheskoe torgovoe i investitsionnoe partnerstvo mezhdu ES i SShA: proobraz obnovlennoi VTO? [The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the EU and the USA: A prototype of a renovated WTO?]. Trade Policy, 2016, no. 2, pp. 22-40.
3. Portanskii A.P. Megaregional’nyi vyzov [Megaregional challenge]. Russia in Global Affairs, no. 1(14), 2016, pp. 126-136.
4. Berden K., Francois J. Quantifying Non-Tariff Measures for TTIP. Paper no. 12 in the CEPS-CTR project “TTIP in the Balance” and CEPS Special Report, no. 116, CEPS, 2015. 30 p.
5. Beckman J., Arita S., Mitchell L., Burfisher M. Agriculture in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Tariffs, Tariff-Rate Quotas, and Non-Tariff Measures. Economic Research Report Number 198. Washington, USDA, 2015. 48 p.
6. Bureau J.-C., Felbermayr G., Fouré J. Risks and opportunities for the EU agri-food sector in a possible EU-US trade agreement. CEPII Research Report. Brussels, European Parliament’s Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development, 2014. 148 p.
7. Josling T., Tangermann S. Agriculture, Food and the TTIP: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Paper no. 1 in the CEPS-CTR project “TTIP in the Balance” and CEPS Special Report, no. 99. CEPS, 2014. 30 p.
8. International Trade Center (ITC) Trade Map. Available at: https://www.trademap.org/ (accessed 20.05.2018).
9. Josling T., Tangermann S. Transatlantic Food and Agricultural Trade Policy: 50 Years of Conflict and Convergence. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2015. 320 p.
10. WTO Tariff Download Facility. Available at: http://tariffdata.wto.org/ReportersAndProducts.aspx (accessed 27.04.2018).
11. World Tariff Profiles. Available at: http://stat.wto.org/TariffProfile/WSDBTariffPFHome.aspx?Language=E (accessed 27.04.2018).
12. Non-Tariff Measures in EU-US Trade and Investment – An Economic Analysis. Final Report of a Study for the European Commission. Rotterdam, ECORUS, 2009. 197 p.
13. Aksoy M.A., Beghin J.C. Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. Washington, World Bank, 2005. 329 p.
14. WTO I-TIP Goods. Available at: http://i-tip.wto.org/goods/ (accessed 27.05.2018)
15. Market Access Database. European Commission. Available at: http://madb.europa.eu/madb/barriers_result.htm?isSps=false&countries=US§ors=20 (accessed 09.06.2018)
16. Deardorff A., Stern R. Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, no. 179. Paris, OECD Publishing, 1997. 117 p.
17. Mal’tseva V.A. Ochagovyi protektsionizm i mirazhi liberalizatsii v mezhdunarodnoi torgovle sel’skokhozyaistvennoi produktsiei [Fragmented protectionism and liberalization illusion in international agricultural trade]. Izvestia Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo ekonomicheskogo universiteta, 2017, no. 4(72), pp. 88-97.
18. Evaluation of NTMs elimination economic effects in EAEU. Saint-Peterburg, EDB Centre for Integration Studies, 2015. 72 p. (In Russ.)
19. T-TIP Issue-by-Issue Information Center. Available at: https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/transatlantic-trade-and-investment-partnership-t-tip/t-tip (accessed 29.04.2018).
20. EU Negotiating Texts in TTIP. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1230 (accessed 11.11.2017).
21. Alemanno A. What the TTIP Leaks Mean for the On-Going Negotiations and Future Agreement? Time to Overcome TTIP’s Many Informational Asymmetries. Research Paper No. LAW‑2016-1158, 2016. 10 p.
22. Puccio L. EU-US Negotiations on TTIP. A Survey of Current Issues. Brussels, European Parliamentary Research Service, 2015. 32 p.
23. Fontagné L., Gourdon J., Jean S. Transatlantic Trade: Whither Partnership, Which Economic Consequences? CEPII Policy Brief, no. 1, 2013. 12 p.
24. EU Textual Proposal on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) in TTIP. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/january/tradoc_153026.pdf (accessed 11.11.2017).
25. EU Proposal to Include an Article on Anti-Microbial Resistance within the SPS Chapter of TTIP. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/november/tradoc_153936.pdf (accessed 11.11.2017).
26. Kondrat’eva N.B. Transatlanticheskoe partnerstvo ES–SShA: perspektivy [The US–EU Transatlantic Partnership: prospects]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2017, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 5-13. DOI:10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-8-5-13
27. Agriculture and Geographical Indications (GIs) in TTIP. A Guide to the EU’s Proposal. Brussels, European Commission, 2016. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2016/march/tradoc_154372.pdf (accessed 11.11.2017).
28. EU Leads the Way by Eliminating Export Subsidies Ahead of WTO Conference in Buenos Aires. Available at: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1738 (accessed 11.01.2018).
29. Mal’tseva V.A., Chupina D.A. Regional’nye i megaregional’nye torgovye soglasheniya: torgovlya sel’skokhozyaistvennoi produktsiei v Transtikhookeanskom partnerstve [Regional and mega-regional trade agreements: agricultural trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership]. International Organizations Research Journal, 2017, no. 1(12), pp. 43-65. DOI:10.17323/1996-7845-2017-01-43
30. Agriculture in the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA). European Parliament, 2016. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2016/586638/EPRS_ATA(2016)586638_EN.pdf (accessed 09.06.2018)
31. Frankl S. Geographical Indications and Mega-Regional Trade Agreements and Negotiations. Geographical Indication at the Crossroads of Trade, Development, and Culture. Focus on Asia-Pacific. Calboli I., Ng-Loy W.L., eds. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017. 550 p. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316711002
32. FoodWatch. Available at: https://www.foodwatch.org/en/press/press-release-study-on-precautionary-principle-in-ttip-and-ceta-28-06-2016/ (accessed 09.06.2018).
Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX