V. Zabolotskaya (firstname.lastname@example.org),
St Petersburg University, 7–9, Universitetskaya Emb., St Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
The article systematizes the most important federal state programs for financial, credit and guarantee support for small businesses in the United States of America. Author identified features, disadvantages and advantages of these programs. The effectiveness of basic and special programs of financial support for the period from 2009 to 2018 was evaluated. A separate section of the study is devoted to the analysis of state programs of financial and investment support for innovation activities of high-tech small business enterprises and startups. The involvement of financial intermediaries (business angels, venture funds and private banks) in these activities allowed the United States to ensure their rapid growth and solve the problem of a lack of long-term financing. The final section of the article demonstrates that the modern model of state financial and credit support to the United States is mature, with the ability to withstand financial crises, and the instruments of developing and stimulating the activities of small business used are highly effective. The developed model of financial, credit and guarantee support ensured the rapid growth of small business enterprises in the country, making it the basis of the national economy. Developing favorable conditions for lending to small businesses allowed the United States in periods of crisis not only to preserve the share of small enterprises in the economy, but also to increase the level of employment of the population and thereby solve an important social task – reducing unemployment during economic crises. The analysis of the effectiveness of state financial, credit and guarantee model of small business support in the United States conducted in the review article can be useful in improving the system of state regulation and support of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia and other countries.
USA, small businesses, startups, financial credit and guarantee support, innovation activities, credit guarantees
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