Integration of Refugees in Europe: Employment as a Priority

1103
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-1-103-111

V. Vedeneeva (vtvedeneeva@gmail.com), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation 

Abstract. The European migration crisis of 2015–2016 showed the need not only to regulate (and above all limit) migratory flow, but also develop effective programs to integrate refugees and people in need of international protection s a target group. Considering the relatively high percentage of positive asylum decisions in the main recipient countries, we may assume that most of the beneficiaries will remain in Europe for a long time, if not forever. Given this, a new approach to integration is important, i.e. the priority of integration in the labour market as key condition for social integration. This approach is shared by all EU member states. Today, at the national level, there are various programs and schemes of integration, the primary objective of which is to speed up asylum-seeker and refugee access to the labour market. The main problems faced by refugees are language barrier, difficulties in recognizing diplomas and qualifications, and protracted access to employment. The Nordic countries and Germany have been the most successful in integrating this migrant category. 

Keywords: Europe, EU, migrants, refugees, integration, integration policy, labour market, employment, vocational training, language training, qualification, skills assessment 


REFERENCES

1. 1.2 Million First-time Asylum Seekers Registered in 2016. Eurostat Newsrelease. 46/2017. 16 March 2017. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7921609/3-16032017-BP-EN.pdf/e5fa98bb-5d9d-4297-9168-d07c67d1c9e1 (accessed 12.03.2018).

2. 650 000 First-time Asylum Seekers Registered in 2017. Eurostat Newsrelease. 47/2018. 20 March 2018. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/8754388/3-20032018-AP-EN.pdf/50c2b5a5-3e6a-4732-82d0-1caf244549e3 (accessed 12.03.2018).

3. Countries of Destination: Germany, Italy and France the Main. Eurostat. Asylum Statistics. 16 March 2018 and 18 April 2018 (part of final decisions). Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_statistics#Countries_of_destination:_Germany.2C_Italy_and_France_the_main (accessed 21.08.2018).

4. Asylum Decisions in the EU-EU Member States Granted Protection to More Than Half a Million Asylum Seekers in 2017. Almost One-third of the Beneficiaries Were Syrians. Eurostat Newsrelease. 67/2018. 19 April 2018. Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/europe/comments/8ddbo5/asylum_decisions_in_the_eueu_member_states/ (accessed 12.05.2018).

5. Decisions on Asylum Applications. Eurostat Statistics Explained. Asylum Quarterly Report. 15 June 2018. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Asylum_quarterly_report#Decisions_on_asylum_applications (accessed 21.08.2018).

6. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Action Plan on the Integration of Third Country Nationals. COM(2016) 377 final. Brussels. 07.06.2016. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/proposal-implementation-package/docs/20160607/communication_action_plan_integration_third-country_nationals_en.pdf (accessed 10.11.2017).

7. European Parliament Resolution of 5 July 2016 on Refugees: Social Inclusion and Integration into the Labour Market (2015/2321(INI)). Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2016-0297+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN (accessed 14.11.2017).

8. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A New Skills Agenda for Europe. Working Together to Strengthen Human Capital, Employability and Competitiveness. COM(2016) 0381 final. Brussels. 10.06.2016. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016DC0381 (accessed 20.11.2017).

9. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2017) 287 final. Brussels. 06.06.2017. Available at: http://www.google.ru/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwjZ8s7Gzt3dAhUhqIsKHbjkCM0QFjAAegQICRAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fec.europa.eu%2Fsocial%2FBlobServlet%3FdocId%3D17834%26langId%3Den&usg=AOvVaw1hzBmOti-yR8YKx12tS6Al (accessed 13.08.2018).

10. Making Integration Work: Refugees and Others in Need of Protection. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2016. Available at: http://lft.ee/admin/upload/files/OECD%20Integratsioon.pdf (accessed 28.09.2017).

11. Finland: Action Plan on Integration Taking into Account Increasing Immigration Flows. 27.11.2015. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/finland-action-plan-on-integration-taking-into-account-increasing-immigration-flows (accessed 25.02.2018).

12. Les perspectives des migrations internationals. 29 Juin 2017. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/migr_outlook-2017-fr (accessed 06.10.2017).

13. Gesetzentwurf der Bundesregierung. Integrationsgesetz.doc. BMAS. 24.05.2016. Available at: https://www.bmas.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/PDF-Meldungen/2016/entwurf-integrationsgesetz.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4 (accessed 29.01.2018).

14. Edin P.-A., Fredriksson P. & Åslund O. Settlement Policies and the Economic Success of Immigrants. Journal of Population Economics, 2004, February, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 133-155.

15. Gustaffson B. Sovremennyi opyt Shvetsii v oblasti mezhdunarodnoi migratsii: problemy i issledovaniya [Sweden’s Recent Experience of International Migration: Issues and Studies]. Zhurnal issledovanii sotsial’noi politiki, 2003, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 185-211.

16. Degler E., Liebig T. Labour Market Integration of Refugees in Germany. OECD. 2017. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/els/mig/Finding-their-Way-Germany.pdf (accessed 25.09.2017).

17. Brücker H. Time Is Being Wasted. 2016. Available at: https://www.uni-bamberg.de/en/news/artikel/refugees-bruecker/ (accessed 14.10.2017).

18. Peschner J. Labour Market Performance of Refugees in the EU. Analytical Support to the Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2016. Working paper 1/2017. Review. ESDE, 2016, p. 5. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=fr&pubId=7992&furtherPubs=yes (accessed 07.02.2018).

19. Lemaître G. The Integration of Immigrants into the Labour Market: The Case of Sweden. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 2007, no. 48. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/38164205.pdf (accessed 16.04.2017).

20. Repina M. Sovremennaya immigratsionnaya politika Shvetsii: problema v realizatsii? [Modern Immigration Policy in Sweden: Is the Problem in Implementation?] Tallinn, 2017. 83 p.

21. Farchi E., Liebig T. A Discussion of the Swedish Migrant Integration System. OECD. 2014, p. 11. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/swedish-migrant-intergation-system.pdf (accessed 20.05.2017).

22. Share of Companies Employing Refugees Triples. Randstad Ifo Personnel Manager Survey. Available at: https://www.cesifo-group.de/ifoHome/facts/Survey-Results/Personalleiterbefragung/Archiv/Personalleiterbefragung-2017Q1.html (accessed 10.01.2018).

23. Karlsdóttir A., Norlén G., Rispling L. and Randall L., eds. State of the Nordic Region 2018: Immigration and Integration Edition. 2018. Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1192284/FULLTEXT01.pdf (accessed 29.01.2018).

24. Konle-Seidl R., Bolits G. Labour Market Integration of Refugees: Strategies and Good Practices. Study. March 2016. Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/578956/IPOL_STU(2016)578956_EN.pdf (accessed 10.10.2017).

25. Perspectives des migrations internationale. OECD. 29 Juin 2017. Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/international-migration-outlook-2017/summary/french_a52197db-fr (accessed 10.10.2017).

26. MYSKILLS – Recognising Professional Competencies. European Commission. German PES. Federal Employment Agency. 2017(a). Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=18693&langId=en (accessed 20.02.2018).

27. Public Employment Services (PES) Initiatives around Skills, Competencies and Qualifications of Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Thematic Paper. European Commission. September 2017. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=18319&langId=en (accessed 20.02.2018).

28. Geflüchtete Menschen in den Arbeitsmarktstatistiken – Erste Ergebnisse. Hintergrundinformation. Nürnberg, Juni 2016. Available at: https://statistik.arbeitsagentur.de/Statischer-Content/Statistische-Analysen/Statistische-Sonderberichte/Generische-Publikationen/Gefluechtete-Menschen-in-den-Arbeitsmarktstatistiken.pdf (accessed 30.01.2018).

29. Fluchtmigration. Berichte: Arbeitsmarkt kompakt. Juli 2018. Bundesagentur für Arbeit Statistik/Arbeitsmarktberichterstattung. Available at: https://statistik.arbeitsagentur.de/Statischer-Content/Statistische-Analysen/Statistische-Sonderberichte/Generische-Publikationen/Fluchtmigration.pdf (accessed 30.01.2018).

30. 1 Euro Job – Hartz IV. Arbeitsgelegenheit mit Mehraufwandsentschädigung beim Arbeitslosengeld II. Available at: https://www.hartziv.org/ein-euro-job.html (accessed 13.08.2018). 


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Vedeneeva V. Integration of Refugees in Europe: Employment as a Priority. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2019, vol. 63, No 1, pp. 103-111. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-1-103-111



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Current Issue
2023, vol. 67, No. 1
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism of the European Union: a New Tool of Global Governance
  • Russia in American Climate Strategies
  • Latin America and NATO: Correlation Formats in the XX – the First Quarter of the XXI Century
  • Russia’s Chance to Renew Global Modernity
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.