A. Gutnik (email@example.com),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation;
O. Trofimova (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Acknowledgements. The article was prepared at the Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences and supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 14-28-00097 “The optimization of Russian external investment ties in the conditions of deteriorating relations with the EU”).
Abstract. The article examines the inflow of Åuropean investment to Kaluga region, one of the most successful in Central Federal District of Russia. The authors identify the specifics of the regional location of European direct investment (FDI) in Russia before and after imposition of Western sanctions in mid-2014 using the existing theories of consistent pattern and different factors influencing this distribution. One of the most important factor consist in that the European Union represents an integration association where each country has its national interests and priorities and particular business model. This explains the differences between EU members in regional and branches preferences in investing in Russia. The article analyses investment attractiveness and advantages of Kaluga region which worked out an effective Investment Strategy 2013- 2020 based on “soft” drivers and cluster model of economy. Special investment product of the region are productive sites (‘brownfield” and “greenfield”) set up in industrial parks and special economic zones. The main cornerstones of the strategy are successful activities of local government and favorable conditions for European investors. The economic crisis and sanctions against Russia has not affected seriously the participation of major European investors due to successful and clever policy of region authorities. No one abandoned their project plans. Authors pay special attention to the advantages of Kaluga region cluster model for European investors and their concentration in manufacturing industries, including high-tech and innovative production. The branches’ structure of European investment reflects cluster orientation of region`s economy. Western Europe remains the top investor in the region. The largest number of FDI projects is implemented by German companies.
Keywords: Russia, Kaluga region, European investment, economic development, cluster model, investment advantages, investment distribution, regional policies, industrial parks, innovative development
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