N. Mamedova (firstname.lastname@example.org),
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 12, Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow 10703, Russian Federation;
MGIMO University, 76, Prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow 119454, Russian Federation
Abstract. After the Islamic revolution in Iran, a unique governance system was set up, where both religious and republican structures are combined. Notwithstanding both the complex liaisons between power and the people, between the various layers of society, even inside different factions of the ruling elite, the system has remained virtually intact for nearly 40 years. Mass opposition protests and demonstrations just before the 49th anniversary of the revolution made it evident that the process of the Islamic regime formation has not been finalized. The protests became the biggest challenge to the Islamic regime since 2009, although they did not develop into a nationwide mass movement. The reasons for the demonstrations were very different – both political and economic. Most of the slogans reflected the discontent of the population with the economic situation. Demonstrators criticized not only the economic policy of H. Rouhani’s government, but also Rahbar Ali Khamenei, the leader of the country, and the Islamic regime as such. The research provides characteristics of various political forces and elements of Iran’s complex political system. Much attention is paid to the role of the supreme Shiite clergy in power and that of the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps in the country’s political and especially economic life. Specifications of some religious and political clans that exert the greatest influence on the policy of the Islamic state are given. The author believes that the sustainability of the Iranian political system is becoming increasingly dependent on political and economic inputs, that the contradictions between the authoritarian nature of Islamic power and growing liberal tendencies in the slab and economy become more distinct.
Keywords: Iran, demonstrations, reformators, conservatives, Islamic Revolution Guard Corps, Rahbar, Islamic governance
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