Quebec Factor in CanadaFrance Relations

774
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-7-93-104

Yu. Akimov (y.akimov@spbu.ru),
St. Petersburg State University, entr. 8, 1/3, Smolnogo Str., St. Petersburg 191060, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article deals with the impact of the “Quebec factor” on Canada–France bilateral relations. Since the Quiet Revolution (“Revolution Tranquille”), French Canadians have regarded Quebec provincial institutions as a tool to promote their specific national interests in Canada and abroad. In mid-1960s, Quebec established “special partnership” with France; at the same time, Paris started regarding French-speaking Canadian province as a privileged partner. It caused problems for the Canadian Federal Government which sought good relations with France and made all efforts to neutralize Quebec’s attempts to involve Paris in federal-provincial conflicts. The situation reached its peak during two Quebec referendums on Sovereignty (1980 and 1995). The main part of the paper focuses on the Canada–France relations in 2000–2015. It shows the change of traditional French position toward the Quebec independentist movement under Nicolas Sarkozy, who chose to neglect “ni-ni” formula and openly supported Canadian unity. It also analyses the reasons of this decision and stresses the role of close personal ties between Sarkozy and French Canadian multimillionaire Paul Desmarais, a powerful and uncompromising opponent of separatists. The paper shows the negative reaction on Sarkozy’s new approach in Quebec (and not only among separatists). It looks into the attitude of François Holland’s administration, which, on the one hand, returned to the “ni-ni” formula, but on the other hand, succeeded in establishing close relations with the Canadian Federal Government. It concludes that Quebec factor will continue to influence Canada–France relations despite the decline of the separatist movement, because Quebec will further develop its identity paradiplomacy thus stressing its specificity within the framework of the Canadian Federation.

Keywords: Canada–France relations, Quebec, French Canadian national movement, minority nationalism, Quebec question, Quebec separatism, France’s Position, Quebec–France “special” relationship, triangle Paris–Ottawa–Quebec-city


REFERENCES

1. Bastien F. Le poids de la coopération: le rapport France-Québec. Montréal, Québec Amérique, 2006. 269 p.

2. Cornut J. Les relations diplomatiques France–Canada–Québec 50 ans après “Vive le Qébec libre!”. Ideées d’Amériques, 2017, no. 9, Printemps/Été. Available at: http://journals.openedition.org/ideas/1917 (accessed 08.02.2018).

3. Koleneko V.A. Frantsuzskaya Kanada v proshlom i nastoyashchem: ocherki istorii Kvebeka XVII–XX vv. [Past and Present of French Canada: Essays in Quebec History, 17th-20th entury]. Moscow, Nauka, 2006. 314 p.

4. Balthazar L. Bilan du nationalisme au Québec. Montréal, Éditions de L’Hexagone, 1986. 217 p.

5. Akimov Yu.G. Charles de Gaulle i stanovlenie “osobykh otnoshenii” Frantsii i Kvebeka [Charles de Gaulle and the Beginning of Special Relations between France and Quebec]. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, 2014, series 6, no. 2, pp. 146-152.

6. Bernier L. De Paris àWashington. La politique internationale du Québec. Sainte-Foy, Les Presses de l’Université du Québec, 1996. 173 p.

7. Bosher J.F. The Gaullist Attack on Canada, 1967–1997. Montreal & Kingston, McGill – Queen’s University Press, 2000. 331 p.

8. Pearson L.B. Words and Occasions: an Anthology of Speeches and Articles Selected from His Papers. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1970. 296 p.

9. Peyrefitte A. C’était de Gaulle. Tome 3, “Tout le monde a besoin d’une France qui marche”. Paris, Editions de Fallois–Fayard, 2000. 680 p.

10. Paquin S., Beaudoin L., eds. Histoire des relations internationales du Québec. Montréal, VLB éditeur, 2006. 357 p.

11. Black E. Direct Intervention: Canada–France Relations, 1967–1974. Montreal, McGill – Queen’s University Press, 1996. 203 p.

12. Akimov Yu.G. “Gollistskaya ataka” ili “voina s vetryanymi mel’nitsami”: Frantsiya, Kvebek i “ostal’naya Kanada” v 1960-e gg. [“Gaullist Attack” or “a War against Windmills”: France, Quebec and the Rest of Canada in 1960s]. Kanadskii ezhegodnik, 2013, issue 17, pp. 17-43.

13. Blanchette A.E., ed. Canadian Foreign Policy, 1945–2000: Major Documents and Speeches. Ottawa, The Golden Dog Press, 2000. 262 p.

14. Akimov Yu.G. Kanada, Kvebek i vopros o provedenii sammita Frankofonii (1970-e – seredina 1980-kh godov) [Canada, Quebec and the Francophone Summit Issue, 1970s – mid 1980s]. Vestnik RGGU. Seriya “Politologiya. Istoriya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. Zarubezhnoe regionovedenie. Vostokovedenie”, 2016, no. 3 (5), pp. 108-121.

15. Chrétien J. My Years as Prime Minister. Toronto, Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2010. 448 p.

16. Joyal S., Linteau P.-A. France, Canada, Québec: 400 ans de relations d’exeption. Montréal, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2008. 319 p.

17. Komarov A.N. Kanadskii konservatizm ot J. Diefenbaker do S. Harper [Canadian Conservatism from J. Diefenbaker to S. Harper]. Vestnik RGGU. Seriya “Istoricheskie nauki. Vseobshchaya istoriya”, 2010, no. 18 (61)/10, pp. 209-225.

18. Cornut J. La fin des relations triangulaires Ottawa-Québec-Paris? Harper, la “diplomatie robuste” et les relations France-Canada. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 2014, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 86-95.

19. Sarkozy’s Quebec Comments Stir Anger. Available at: https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2008/05/09/sarkozys_quebec_comments_stir_anger.html (accessed 08.02.2018).

20. It’s Time for Unity, Sarkozy Tells Quebec, Canada. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/it-s-time-for-unity-sarkozy-tells-quebec-canada-1.709288 (accessed 08.02.2018).

21. Discours du président français Nicolas Sarkozy devant l’Assemblée nationale du Québec. Available at: http://bilan.usherbrooke.ca/bilan/pages/evenements/23885.html (accessed 08.02.2018).

22. La France prône l’unité. Available at: http://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/414876/sarko-quebec (accessed 08.02.2018).

23. Hirtzmann L. Sarkozy choque les indépendantistes québécois. Available at: http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2009/02/04/01003-20090204ARTFIG00454-sarkozy-choque-les-independantistes-quebecois-.php (accessed 08.02.2018).

24. Une fleur de Sarkozy à son ami Paul Desmarais. Available at: http://www.ledevoir.com/politique/quebec/176480/une-fleur-de-sarkozy-a-son-ami-paul-desmarais (accessed 08.02.2018).

25. La grand-croix pour un Franco-Ontarien. Available at: http://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/385019/desmarais-grand-croix (accessed 08.02.2018).

26. Lisée J.-F. Quand Sarkozy enterre de Gaulle. Available at: http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2008/10/24/quand-sarkozy-enterre-de-gaulle-par-jean-francois-lisee_1110721_3232.html (accessed 08.02.2018).

27. Paquin S. Paradiplomatie et relations internationales: Théories et stratégies internationales des régions face àla mondialisation. Bruxelles, P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2004. 189 p.

28. Sarkosy’s Sovereignty Comments Spark Anger in Quebec. Available at: http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=1249285 (accessed 08.02.2018).

29. Marois et Duceppe en colère. Available at: http://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/425824/sarkozy-souverainete-lettre (accessed 08.02.2018).

30. Hollande à l’indépendantiste québécoise Marois: “non-ingérence” et “non-indifférence”. Available at: http://www.lcp.fr/afp/hollande-lindependantiste-quebecoise-marois-non-ingerence-et-non-indifference (accessed 08.02.2018).

31. Lecours A. Political Issues of Paradiplomacy: Lessons from the Developed World. Discussion Papers in Diplomacy. Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendael”, 2008. 15 p. Available at: https://www.clingendael. org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20081217_cdsp_diplomacy_paper_paradiplomacy.pdf (accessed 08.02.2018).

32. Salvet J.-M. France-Québec-Canada: Hollande parle la langue des affaires. Available at: http://www.france-canada.info/france-quebec-canada-hollande-parle-la-langue-des-affaires/ (accessed 08.02.2018).

33. Parti libéral du Québec. Les documents officiels. Available at: https://plq.org/app/uploads/2016/08/regles_33_congres.pdf (accessed 08.02.2018).

34. Goulet J.-M. Climat: Trudeau ne respectera pas l’Accord de Paris, voici pourquoi. Available at: http://www.nationalobserver.com/2016/11/20/opinion/climat-trudeau-ne-respectera-pas-laccord-de-paris-voici-pourquoi (accessed 08.02.2018).

35. Canada’s State of Trade: Trade and Investment Update – 2017. Available at: http://www.international.gc.ca/economist-economiste/performance/state-point/state_2017_point/index.aspx?lang=eng (accessed 08.02.2018).


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Akimov Y. Quebec Factor in CanadaFrance Relations. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2018, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 93-104 . https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-7-93-104



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 7
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • The Supporting Structure of Global Security
  • Institutional Features of the Fourth Energy Transition
  • The Evolution of Modern German Christian Democracy
  • The Monarchies of the Persian Gulf and Central Asia
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.