М. Khodynskaya-Golenishcheva (email@example.com),
Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, 15, Avenue de la Paix, Geneva, 1202, Switzerland
Abstract. The article compares elements of an internationally recognized basis for the Syrian crisis settlement. The latter is comprised of documents adopted during discussions in the framework of various international formats: Kofi Annan Plan (2012), Geneva Communique (2012), United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015). The paper analyses the nature of Russian-American differences in interpretation of the three documents provisions as well as links between those decisions and various collective formats including UN Security Council, Action Group for Syria and International Syria Support Group (ISSG). The author looks into negotiation process to which these documents served as a basis, first and foremost intra-Syrian talks in Geneva, and specifies Russian and American positions on the issue of the so called political transition in Syria; identifies strong and weak points of relevant decisions, and contemplates if they could be used as an effective instrument of collective search for a Syrian conflict settlement formula. Syrian authorities’ stance towards these documents and decisions is also analysed, as it defines the behavior of the Syrian government delegation at intra-Syrian talks in Geneva under the UN auspices. The article explains why Damascus did not find acceptable provisions of the internationally-agreed document and refused to perceive them as a basis for the Syrian crisis solution.
Keywords: Syria, Syrian crisis, Middle East, foreign policy, world order, UN
1. Letter of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon to Ms. Susan Rice, President of the Security Council. New York. 18 April 2012. 3 p. (unpublished). Available at: http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/04/19/ban-ki-moon-calls-for-an-expanded-u-nmission-for-syria (accessed 26.01.2018).
2. Statement and Answers to Questions of Russia’s Foreign Minister S. Lavrov at Press Conference after Action Group for Syria Meeting on June 30.2012. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/2983345 (accessed 26.01.2018).
3. A Concept of an International Conference on Syria. Non-Paper. By the Russian Federation. 28 June 2012. 4 p. (unpublished).
4. Wilson S., Warrick J. Assad Must Go, Obama Says. The Washington Post, 18.08.2011.
5. Principles and Components of Political Transition in Syria. US Non-Paper. 26 June 2012. 2 p. (unpublished).
6. Joint Statement by Russia’s President V. Putin and US President B. Obama. Los Cabos, 18 June 2012 (In Russ.) Available at: http://kremlin.ru/supplement/1244 (accessed 21.06.2012).
7. Guide Lines and Principles for a Syrian-led Transition. UN Document. 3 p. (unpublished) Available at: http://www.un.org/News/dh/infocus/Syria/FinalCommuniqueActionGroupforSyria.pdf (accessed 26.01.2018).
8. Russian Proposals to the Joint Special Envoy’s Non-Paper “Guide-Lines and Principles for a Syrian-led Transition”. 26 June 2012. 3 p. (unpublished).
9. Letter by the UN/LAS Special Envoy on Syria K. Annan to the Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation His Excellency Mr. Sergey V. Lavrov. 28 June 2012. 5 p. (unpublished).
10. Meeting of the Action Group for Syria, Convened by the Joint Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the League of Arab States and Organized by the United Nations Office. 28 June 2012. 4 p. (unpublished).
11. Resolution on International Control and Destruction of the SAR’s Chemical Weapons. S/RES/2118 (2013), 27.09.2013. Annex II, 30.06.2012 (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.mid.ru/ru/maps/sy/-/asset_publisher/9fcjSOwMERcf/content/id/94162 (accessed 26.01.2018).
12. Remarks by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. Palace of Nations. Geneva, Switzerland. 30 June 2012. Available at: https://geneva.usmission.gov/2012/06/30/secretary-clinton-press-availability-following-the-meeting-of-the-actiongroup-on-syria/ (accessed 26.01.2018).
13. Questions and Answers Session with Ahmad Fawzi, Spokesman for Kofi Annan, Joint Special Envoy for Syria. Geneva. 3 July 2013. 7 p.
14. Political Program for Syrian Crisis Settlement Proposed by President B. Assad. Damascus, 2013. 18 p. (In Russ.) (unpublished).
15. 14 November 2015, Statement of the International Syria Support Group. Vienna. 7 p. Available at: https://www.un.org/undpa/en/Speeches-statements/14112015/syria (accessed 26.01.2018).
16. UN Security Council Resolution 2254 (2015). UN Document S/2254/2015. 5 p. Available at: https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc12171.doc.htm (accessed 26.01.2018).
17. On Telephone Conversation Between Russia’s Foreign Minister S. Lavrov and US State Secretary J. Kerry. 17 December 2016 (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.mid.ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/1990173 (accessed 18.12.2015).
18. Executive Framework for a Political Solution Based on the Geneva Communique. High Negotiation Commission for the Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces. September 2016. 4 p. (unpublished).
19. UN Security Council. Meeting 7588. 18 December 2015 г. New York. UN Document S/PV.7588. 22 p. Available at: http://www.un.org/en/sc/meetings/records/2015.shtml (accessed 26.01.2018).
Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX