Institute of Elections as the Mechanism of Public Authority Legitimation

1009
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-2-62-72
Y. Nisnevich (nisjulius@gmail.com),

National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20, Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation 

Abstract. The article analyzes the role of the institution of elections in the legitimation of public authority, depending on the type of the ruling political regime. The distribution of government forms in modern states allows us to conclude that in the overwhelming majority of states, the institution of elections is called upon to play the determining role in the typology of public power legitimation. In each specific state, the real typology of public power legitimation is dictated by the way this institution is implemented in the political practice of the given state. In states with ruling regimes of minimal electoral and more developed forms of democracy, honest, free and competitive elections serve as a key mechanism for ensuring the democratic rational and legal legitimacy of public authority. In constitutional monarchies belonging to this cluster of states, along with democratic rational legal legitimacy, traditional legitimacy takes place, the mechanism of which is a constitutionally established order of succession to the throne. This legitimization does not correlate with that of the imperiously-compulsory powers of public authority, but has the character of their moral and ethical legitimation in the context of historical traditions and experience of this state. In non-democratic states with authoritarian and neo-authoritarian regimes of dictatorial type, the institution of elections is deliberately deformed by distorting the legal basis of electoral legislation and using electoral corruption in the process of election campaigns. In such states, elections are transformed into measures of plebiscitary legitimization with a simulation of competitiveness that imitate the rational and legal public authority legitimation. There are also such types of legitimization as charismatic, created with the use of technologies of mass consciousness manipulation and propaganda, and ideological, constructed on the basis of this or that ideology of etatism with nationalistic coloring, which play an important role in achieving the results of measures for their plebiscitary legitimization that simulate competitive elections. 

Keywords: public authority, elections, legitimacy, electoral democracy, authoritarian regime 


REFERENCES

1. Solov’ev A.I. Politologiya: Politicheskaya teoriya, politicheskie tekhnologii [Political Science: Political Theory, Political Technologies]. Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2008. 575 p.

2. Mel’nik V.A. Sovremennyi slovar’ po politologii [Modern Dictionary of Political Science]. Minsk, Knizhniy Dom, 2004. 640 p.

3. Weber M. Economy and Society. Los Angeles, London, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1978. 1470 p.

4. Easton D. A System Analysis of Political Life. New York, Wiley, 1965. 507 p.

5. Bourdieu P. Sotsiologiya politiki [Sociology of Politics]. Moscow, Socio-Logos, 1993. 336 p.

6. Mills C.W. The Sociological Imagination. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1959. 256 p.

7. Lipset S.M. Political Man: the Social Basis of Politic. Garden City, New York, Doubleday, 1960. 442 p.

8. Parsons T. The System of Modern Societies. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, 1971. 152 p.

9. Habermas J. Communication and the Evolution of Society. Boston, Beacon Press, 1979. 264 p.

10. Beetham D. The Legitimation of Power. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1991. 336 p.

11. Luhmann N. Soziologie des Risikos. Berlin, New York, Walter de Gruyter, 1991. 252 p.

12. Nisnevich Yu.A. Publichnaya vlast’ i korruptsiya: sotsial’no-antropologicheskii podkhod [Public Power and Corruption: Social Anthropology Approach]. Polis. Political Studies, 2014, no. 6, pp. 32-51.

13. Fukuyama F. Konets istorii i poslednii chelovek [The End of History and The Last Man]. Moscow, AST, 2007. 588 p.

14. Sukharev A. Ya., ed. Bol’shoi yuridicheskii slovar’ [Great Law Dictionary]. Moscow, INFRA-M, 2007. 858 p.

15. Voting in Elections to the Federal National Council in the UAE Began. RIA “Novosti”. 03.10.2015. (In Russ.) Available at: http://ria.ru/world/20151003/1295810008.html (accessed 11.10.2017).

16. Smith B., Thompson G. Qatar 2013. SNIA/6745. 18 October 2013. House of Commons Library. Available at: http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06745/SN06745.pdf (accessed 11.10.2017).

17. Dahl R. O demokratii [On Democracy]. Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2000. 208 p.

18. Schumpeter J. Kapitalizm, sotcializm i demokratiya [Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1995. 540 p.

19. Bulgakov M.A. Izbrannoe [Selection]. Moscow, Khudozhestvennaya literatura, 1980. 400 p.

20. Huntington S. Tret’ya volna. Demokratizatsiya v kontse XX veka [The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century]. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2003. 368 p.

21. Freedom in the World 2004: Methodology. Freedom House, 2004. Available at: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedomworld-2004/methodology (accessed 12.10.2017).

22. About Freedom in the World. List of Electoral Democracies, FIW (1989-2016). Freedom House. Available at: https://freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world (accessed 12.10.2017).

23. Sri Lanka’s President Declared the Election Defeat. Commonwealth of Independent States – Election Monitoring Organization (CISEMO). 09.01.2015 (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.cis-emo.net/ru/news/prezident-shri-lanki-priznal-porazhenie-na-vyborah (accessed 12.10.2017).

24. The EU Considers that the Elections in Sri Lanka Were Organized Properly. Commonwealth of Independent States – Election Monitoring Organization (CIS-EMO). 20.08.2015. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.cis-emo.net/ru/news/es-schitaet-chto-vybory-na-shri-lanke-byli-organizovany-dolzhnym-obrazom (accessed 12.10.2017).

25. Carothers T. Konets paradigmy tranzita [The End of the Transit Paradigm]. Politicheskaya nauka, 2003, no. 2, pp. 42-65.

26. Plot of “The Political Crisis in Moldova”. Regnum. (In Russ.) Available at: https://regnum.ru/news/dossier/1664.html (accessed 12.10.2017).

27. Bukova I.A. Tendentsiya regionalizatsii i “levyy povorot” v stranakh Latinskoy Ameriki. Diss. cand. polit. Nauk. [The Trend of Regionalization and “Left Turn” in Latin America. Cand. Diss. (Polit.)] Moscow, 2011. 183 p. Available at: http://www.dissercat.com/content/tendentsiya-regionalizatsii-i-levyi-povorot-v-stranakh-latinskoi-ameriki (accessed 12.10.2017).

28. Electoral Geography 2.0. Macedonia (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.electoralgeography.com/new/ru/category/countries/m/macedonia (accessed 12.10.2017).

29. In Macedonia, the Ruling Party Won the Presidential and Parliamentary Elections. Lenta.ru, 28.04.2014 (In Russ.) Available at: https://lenta.ru/news/2014/04/28/macedonia/ (accessed 12.10.2017).

30. Guinea-Bissau. Euronews. (In Russ.) Available at: http://ru.euronews.com/tag/guinea-bissau/ (accessed 12.10.2017).

31. Coup in Thailand: the Military Seized Power and Abolished the Constitution. RIANovosti”, 22.05.2014 (In Russ.) Available at: http://ria.ru/world/20140522/1008904781.html (accessed 12.10.2017).

32. Nisnevich Yu.A., Ryabov A.V. Sovremennyi avtoritarizm i politicheskaya ideologiya [Modern Authoritarianism and Political Ideology]. Polis. Political Studies, 2016, no. 4, pp. 162-181.

33. Nisnevich Yu.A. Sovremennyi avtoritarizm i korruptsiya. [Modern Authoritarianism and Corruption]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2017, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 94-106.

34. Rwanda’s Kagame Set for Big Win. Aljazeera, 10.08.2010. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2010/08/201081055824857943.html (accessed 12.10.2017).

35. Modern Singapore. Political Atlas of Modernity (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.hyno.ru/tom2/1393.html (accessed 12.10.2017).

36. Robert Gabriel Mugabe. Encyclopedia.com. Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Robert_Gabriel_Mugabe.aspx (accessed 12.10.2017).

37. Schedler A. Election Without Democracy: The Menu of Manipulation. Journal of Democracy, 2002, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 36-50.

38. The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) Project. The World Bank. Available at: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#home (accessed 12.10.2017).

39. Solov’ev A.I. Politicheskaya ideologiya [Political Ideology]. Politologiya. Leksikon [Political Science. Lexicon]. Solov’ev A.I., ed. Moscow, ROSSPEN, 2007, pp. 346-365.

40. Great Encyclopedic Words. Moscow, AST, Astrel’, 2003. 1248 p. (In Russ.) 


Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Nisnevich Y. Institute of Elections as the Mechanism of Public Authority Legitimation. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2018, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 62-72. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-2-62-72



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed

 

 

 

 

Dear authors! Please note that in the VAK List of peer-reviewed scientific journals, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of candidate and doctor of sciences should be published for the “MEMO Journal” the following specialties are recorded:
economic sciences:
5.2.5. World Economy.
5.2.1. Economic Theory
5.2.3. Regional and Branch Economics
political sciences:
5.5.4. International Relations
5.5.1. History and Theory of Politics
5.5.2. Political Institutions, Processes, Technologies

 

Current Issue
2024, vol. 68, No. 4
Topical Themes of the Issue:
  • Financial Contagion Propagation in Europe under the Impact of Global Shocks
  • Regional Powers on the African Continent: Trends and Prospects
  • Investment Activity of the PRC in the Kyrgyz Republic
  • “Land Grabbing” Concept: Global and National Aspects
Submit an Article
INVITATION FOR PUBLICATION
The Editorial Board invites authors to write analytical articles on the following topics:
  • changes in the processes of globalization in modern conditions
  • formation of the new world order
  • shifts in civilization at the stage of transition to a digital society

The editors are also interested in publishing synthesis articles / scientific reviews revealing the main trends in the development of certain regions of the world - Latin America, Africa, South Asia, etc.