Azov and Black Sea Region: New Political and Legal Realities (Part II)

252
DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-11-87-98

P. Gudev (gudev@imemo.ru), 
Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO), 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation 



Abstract

The Black Sea is a unique maritime region of great strategic importance not only for regional states, but also for non-regional players – especially for the NATO countries. For the Russian Federation it is the maritime area of its Black Sea Fleet location, the exit of which into the Mediterranean Sea and further to the Atlantic Ocean lies through the Black Sea straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. For NATO members which are constantly strengthening their naval presence here, it is not only a region of interaction with allies (Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey), but also a region for direct access to potential partners – Georgia and Ukraine, as well as a place for naval exercises, gathering intelligence information, and, in general, – the area of direct contact with Russia’s naval potential under conditions of a new Cold War. This existing level of conflict in the region is aggravated by a number of other circumstances. Firstly, these are unresolved issues with the delimitation of maritime spaces: between Russia and Ukraine, the problem of which has only intensified after the entry of Crimea into the Russian Federation; between Russia and other Black Sea countries (Romania, Turkey, Abkhazia), also emerged after the Crimea’s accession. Secondly, this is the non-recognition of Russian zones of sovereignty and jurisdiction around the peninsula on the part of Kiev, and the filing of relevant lawsuits in international courts and arbitrations, which is hypothetically fraught with a growth of provocations in the waters adjacent to Crimea. Thirdly, this is a gradual aspiration of Turkey to strengthen the national level of regulation for navigation through the straits – the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. Finally, unrealized projects of the NATO’s Black Sea flotilla only exacerbate the tension here. Whether Russia will fully ensure the protection of its national interests in the Black Sea region, will determine its status of the largest and the most powerful Black Sea state. 


Keywords

Crimea, Black Sea, Black Sea straits, Montreux Convention, 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, delimitation of maritime spaces, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, International Arbitration 


REFERENCES

1. Maritime delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine). International Court of justice. Available at: http://www.icj-cij.org/en/case/132 (accessed 20.03.2018).

2. Surzhin A.S. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoi rezhim Chernogo morya (vklyuchaya Azovo-Kerchenskuyu akvatoriyu i chernomorskie prolivy). Diss. cand. ur. nauk [The international legal regime of the Black Sea (including the Azov-Kerch water area and the Black Sea straits) Cand. Diss (Jur.)]. Moscow, RUDN, 2011. 239 p.

3. Dremlyuga R.I. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoirezhim Chernomorskikh prolivov [International legal status of the Black Sea Straits]. Lex Russica, 2013, no. 10, pp. 1107-1114.

4. Buzan B. The Status and Future of the Montreux Convention. Survival, 1976, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 242-247.

5. Knight G.H. The Kiev and the Turkish Straits. The American Journal of the International Law, 1977, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 125-129.

6. Nezhinskii L.N., Ignat’ev A.V., eds. Rossiya i Chernomorskie prolivy (XVIII-XX stoletiya). [Russia and Black Sea Straits (XVIII-XX centuries]. Moscow, Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1999. 557 p.

7. Kotlyar V.S. Mezhdunarodno-pravovoi rezhim chernomorskikh prolivov i politikaTurtsii v voprose o rezhimeprolivov [International legal regime of the Black Sea Straits and Turkey’s policy concerning the straits Regime]. Mezhdunarodnoe morskoe pravo. Stat’i pamyati A.L. Kolodkina [International Law of the Sea. Articles in memory of A.L. Kolodkin]. Kolodkin R.A., Punzhin S.M., eds. Moscow, Statut, 2014. 418 p.

8. Shemyakin A.N. Chernomorskie prolivy: istoriya i sovremennost’ [The Black Sea Straits: history and the present]. Transportnoe pravo, 2003, no. 4, pp. 26-30.

9. Kolodkin A.L., Gutsulyak V.N., Bobrova Yu.V. Mirovoi okean. Mezhdunarodno-pravovo i rezhim. Osnovnye problem [World Ocean. The international legal regime. Mainproblems]. Moscow, Statut, 2007. 637 p.

10. Plant G. Navigation regime in the Turkish Straits for Merchant Ships in Peacetime. Marine Policy, 1996, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 15-27.

11. Fornari M. Conflicting interests in the Turkish Straits: is the Free Passage of Merchant Ships still Applicable? The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 2005, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 225-247.

12. Joyner Ch., Mitchell J. Regulating Navigation trough the Turkish Straits: a Challenge for Modern International Environmental Law. The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 2002, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 521-559.

13. Zanina V. Iz Kremlya Bosfor ne viden [Bosfor us is not visible from the Kremlin]. International Affairs, 2014, no. 6, pp. 82-94.

14. Order of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation of November 26, 2014 no. 659 “On the limits of the border zone in the territory of the Republic of Crimea”. Rossiiskaya gazeta, 17.12.2014. (In Russ.)

15. Limits at the Seas. No. 109. Continental Shelf Boundary: Turkey-USSR. Available at: https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/58383.pdf (accessed 15.02.2018).

16. Abkhazia protests Georgia over detention of Ukrainian ship. RIAN.COM.UA, 02.07.2018. (In Russ.) Available at: http://rian.com.ua/world_news/20100730/78465342.html (accessed 18.02.2018).

17. Syrian captain suffered for the Crimea. Ukraine confiscated cargo and vessel from Tanzania for visiting Crimea (In Russ.) Available at: https://www.gazeta.ru/social/2017/03/17/10579721.shtml (accessed 28.02.2018).

18. Ukrainian border guards detained in the Sea of Azov Russian fishing vessel. Gazeta.Ru, 17.03.2017. (In Russ.) Available at: http://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/5066125http://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/5066125 (accessed 03.03.2018).

19. The Law of Ukraine “On ensuring the rights and freedoms of citizens and the legal regime in the temporarily occupied territory of Ukraine”. Vdomost Verkhovno Radi, 2014, no. 26, st. 892 (In Ukr.) Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1207-18 (accessed 14.03.2018).

20. On the Sea Ports closing (In Ukr.) Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0690-14 (accessed 12.03.2018).

21. IMO Maritime Safety Committee. 97th session, MSC97/4/2, 19 September 2016. Safety and security of navigation in the North- Eastern part of the Black Sea Submitted by Georgia and Ukraine. Available at: https://docs.imo.org/Shared/Download.aspx?did=99517 (accessed 15.03.2018).

22. Everest Estate LLC et al. v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/133 (accessed 15.03.2018).

23. Stabil LLC, (ii) Rubenor LLC, (iii) Rustel LLC, (iv) Novel-Estate LLC, (v) PII Kirovograd-Nafta LLC, (vi) Crimea-Petrol LLC, (vii) Pirsan LLC, (viii) Trade-Trust LLC, (ix) Elefteria LLC, (x) VKF Satek LLC,(xi) Stemv Group LLC v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/122 (accessed 15.03.2018).

24. Limited Liability Company Lugzor, (2) Limited Liability Company Libset, (3) Limited Liability Company Ukrinterinvest, (4) Public Joint Stock Company niproADzot, (5) Limited Liability Company Aberon Ltd v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/124 (accessed 15.03.2018).

25. PJSC CB Privat Bank and Finance Company Finilon LLC v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/130 (accessed 15.03.2018).

26. Aeroport Belbek LLC and Mr. Igor Valerievich Kolomoisky v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/123 (accessed 15.03.2018).

27. NJSC Naftogaz of Ukraine (Ukraine) et al. v. The Russian Federation. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/151 (accessed 15.03.2018).

28. Tzeng P. Sovereignty over Crimea: A Case for State-to-State Investment Arbitration. Yale Journal of International Law, 2016, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 459-468.

29. Bing Bing Jia. The principle of the Domination of the land over the Sea: a Historical Perspective on the Adaptability of the Law of the Sea to New Challenges. German Yearbook of International Law, 2014, no. 57, p. 1-32.

30. Karaman I.V. Mezhdunarodnyi Tribunal po morskomu pravu: reglamentatsiya deyatel’nosti i sudoproizvodstvo [International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea: regulation of Activities and Legal Proceeding]. Odessa, Feniks, 2007. 160 p.

31. Dispute Concerning Coastal State Rights in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Kerch Strait (Ukraine v. the Russian Federation). Available at: https://pca-cpa.org/ru/cases/149/ (accessed 17.03.2018).

32. Rules of the Procedure. Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/2136 (accessed 19.03.2018).

33. Keyuan Zou, Qiang Ye. Interpretation and Application of Article 298 of the Law of the Sea Convention in Recent Annex VII Arbitrations: an Appraisal. Ocean development and International Law, 2017, vol. 48, issue 3-4, pp. 331-344. DOI:10.1080/0 0908320.2017.1320917

34. Statement given to the Informal Meeting of Legal Advisers of Ministries of Foreign Affairs. New York, 23 October 2006. Available at: https://www.itlos.org/press-media/statements-of-the-president/statements-of-president-wolfrum/ (accessed 19.03.2018).

35. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Declarations made upon signature, ratification, accession or succession or anytime thereafter. Ukraine. Available at: http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_declarations.htm#Ukraine%20Upon%20ratification (accessed 19.03.2018).

36. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Declarations made upon signature, ratification, accession or succession or anytime thereafter. Russian Federation. Available at: http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_declarations.htm#Russian%20Federation%20Upon%20ratification (accessed 20.03.2018).

37. Chagos Marine Protected Area Arbitration (Mauritius v. United Kingdom). Available at: https://pcacases.com/web/view/11 (accessed 25.03.2018).

38. Tzeng P. Ukraine v. Russia and Philippines v. China: Jurisdiction and Legitimacy. Denver Journal of International Law and Police, 2017, vol. 46, pp. 1-19. 


Text 

Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Gudev P. Azov and Black Sea Region: New Political and Legal Realities (Part II). Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2018, vol. 62, No 11, pp. 87-98. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-11-87-98



Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment







Indexed
 
Current Issue
2020, vol. 64, No. 11

Topical Themes of the Issue:

  • • Comparative Analyses of Terrorist Threats under Conditions of COVID 19
  • • Competitive Education in the Third Millenium: Quo Vadis?
  • • Models of Regional Leadership in Eurasia: to the New Research Agenda
  • • Russia: “Late-Take off Society” in the Whirlwind of World Politics
  • • Development of a National School of Political Science in China
View This Issue (2020, vol. 64, No. 11)
Submit an Article
Announcement

Dear readers!
Please note that free access to full-text issues of the Journal is being opened at our WEB-site after 6 months of the date of publications.The work on deepening the open archive of full-text issues will be continued.


Dear colleagues, authors and readers!
We kindly request you to turn to editor-in-chief and executive secretary directly concerning reviewing scientific publications in our journal. Only editor-in-chief takes decision on order and publication the reviews!

Dear readers!
This is to inform the researchers of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations that electronic versions of the I, II, III issues of 2020 of French magazine Politique étrangère are now available. Those who are interested, please personally address to the editorial staff of MEMO Journal (room 18-17) with an electronic media.
NEW SECTION

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.

“Civilization processes of modern development” is a new rubric opened by MEMO Journal in 2020. It will be devoted to the analysis of the influence of civilizational factors and inter-civilizational interactions on the political and socio-economic development of the world at whole, regions and countries.

“Africa today and tomorrow”The rubric devoted to contemporary issues of Africa which is attracting growing interest of the world's leading actors. We plan to publish the articles analyzing the status of statehood, socio-economic and political development of the countries of Black continent, as well as the integration processes between them.

CONTEST!

"World Eonomy and International Relations" announces a contest for the best joint academic publications of domestic and foreign researchers and experts in topical issues of the world economy and international relations. The winners will be selected according to the results of peer reviewing and discussion at the Editorial Board. The articles will be published in priority order.

SUBSCRIBE TO THE JOURNAL

The print version of “World Economy and International Relations” journal is distributed by advance subscription only, and is not offered for retail sale. To subscribe please address to any post office in Russia by referring to the Federal Postal Service Union Catalogue, section “ARSMI”, the journal index is 70542. The subscription may be made for the whole subscription period or starting from any nearest available month for desired number of issues.

To purchase the full-text electronic version of the journal’s issue/article please address to the WEB portal of Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.ru or URL: https://press.gaugn.ru/.

In journal
Years
2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 |

The author’s opinions may not coincide with the position of editorial