Economically Vulnerable Youth in OECD and Russia

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2018-62-11-99-107

N. Vishnevskaya (, 
National Research University "Higher School of Economics", 20, Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation;
A. Zudina (, 
National Research University "Higher School of Economics", 20, Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation 


The article is dedicated to the analysis of economically vulnerable categories of youth in OECD and Russia with particular focus on the comparative analysis of various characteristics of NEETs. Labour force participation of young people in the developed countries decreased during 2000–2015 which was associated not only with the cyclical crisis, but also with an increase in the proportion of young people who continue their education. The new statistical indicator – NEET-reflects the ratio of those young people who are not in employment, education or training. Thus, it should identify economically vulnerable groups of young people who experience difficulties with the transition from school to work. The article states that NEET should not be regarded as the only indicator of economic deprivation of young people. The reasons for the drop out from education and employment can be diverse. The category of NEET unites young people with different experience in employment, personal characteristics and life goals. For some of them economic inactivity is a voluntary choice. That is why one should always consider differences in NEET types. However, the majority of NEET group consists of economically vulnerable young people who definitely need support from the state. In OECD countries about 60% of all NEETs got in this state due to some disfunction of the labor market, and the remaining 40% – due to some social or medical reasons. Countries of Southern Europe are characterized by the highest proportion of long-term unemployed and desperate NEETs, reflecting the tough character of youth labor market adjustment to the crisis. The risk of falling into the NEET group as a whole is higher among young women and those who have low levels of education. Effective youth policy is impossible without the consideration of all aspects of youth labor market. This is relevant both to developed and transition economies, including Russia. In Russia the share of NEET youth has been declining over the past twenty years and now is at the level of European mean values. At the same time the structure of NEET youth in Russia is dominated not by the unemployed, i.e. those actively seeking work, but by economically inactive young people who are outside the labor market. One of the most disturbing features of the structure of Russian NEET youth is an increase in the proportion of young graduates with higher education. It points to the difficulties of matching between education and labor market which can come as a result of so called massovization of higher education. 


youth, economic activity, unemployment, NEET, labor force, Russia, OECD 


1. ILO. World Employment Social Outlook. Trends for Youth. Geneva, International Labour Office, 2016. 48 p.

2. Live Longer, Work Longer. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2006. 146 p.

3. United Nations. World Population Prospects. 2012. Available at: (accessed 03.03.2018).

4. OECD Dataset: Labour Force Statistics by Sex and Age. Available at: (accessed 03.03.2018).

5. OECD. Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2016. 508 p.

6. Quintini G. Working and Learning: A Diversity of Patterns. OECD WP, 2015, no. 69. 30 p.

7. OECD. Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2017. 452 p.

8. Modernizing Vocational Education and Training. Fourth Report on Vocational Education and Training Research in Europe. Thessaloniki, CEDEFOP, 2009. 160 p.

9. OECD. Off to a Good Start? Jobs for Youth. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2010. 158 p.

10. Quintini G., Manfredi T. Going Separate Ways? School-to-Work Transitions in the United States and Europe. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper, no. 90, 2009. 53 p.

11. Jobs for Youth: Spain. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2007. 157 p.

12. Eurofound. NEETs – Young People not in Employment, Education or Training: Characteristics, Costs and Policy Responses in Europe. Luxemburg, Publication Office of the EU, 2012. 158 p.

13. Eurofound. Exploring the Diversity of NEETs. Luxemburg, Publication Office of the EU, 2016. 72 p.

14. OECD. Youth not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET) (Indicator). 2018. DOI:10.1787/72d1033a-en (accessed 03.03.2018).

15. Coles B., Hutton S., Bradshaw J., Craig G., Godfrey C., Johnson J. Literature Review of the Costs of Being ‘Not in Education, Employment or Training’ at Age 16-18. Available at: (accessed 20.03.2018).

16. Yenda Y. The NEET Problem in Japan. Social Science Japan, 2005, vol. 32, pp. 3-4.

17. Eurostat Labour Force Database. Available at: (accessed 03.03.2018).

18. Williamson H. Delivering a ‘NEET’ Solution: An Essay on an Apparently Intractable Problem. Engaging Wales’ Disengaged Youth. Upton S., ed. Cardiff, Institute of Welsh Affairs, 2010, pp. 7-19.

19. Gregg F. The Impact of Youth Unemployment on Adult Unemployment in the NCDS. The Economic Journal, 2001, vol. 111, pp. 626-653.

20. Doiron D., Gorgens T. State Dependence in Youth Labour Market Experience, and the Evaluation of Policy Interventions. Journal of Econometrics, 2008, vol. 145, pp. 81-97.

21. Carcillo S., Fernández R., Königs S., Minea A. NEET Youth in the Aftermath of the Crisis: Challenges and Policies. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, 2015, no. 164. 108 p.

22. Idikatory obrazovaniya: 2016. Statisticheskii sbornik [Education Indicators: 2016. Statistical Yearbook]. Gokhberg L.M., Zabaturina I.Yu., Kovaleva N.V. et al, eds. Moscow, NRU HSE, 2016. 320 p.

23. Varshavskaya E.Ya. Molodezh, iskluchennaya iz sphery zanyatosti i obrazovania, v stranah ES i Rossii [Youth Excluded from Employment and Education in EU Countries and in Russia]. Voprosy statistiki, 2015, no. 4, pp. 40-47. 

Registered in system SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Vishnevskaya N., Zudina A. Economically Vulnerable Youth in OECD and Russia. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2018, vol. 62, No 11, pp. 99-107.

Comments (0)

No comments

Add comment

Current Issue
2020, vol. 64, No. 11

Topical Themes of the Issue:

  • • Comparative Analyses of Terrorist Threats under Conditions of COVID 19
  • • Competitive Education in the Third Millenium: Quo Vadis?
  • • Models of Regional Leadership in Eurasia: to the New Research Agenda
  • • Russia: “Late-Take off Society” in the Whirlwind of World Politics
  • • Development of a National School of Political Science in China
View This Issue (2020, vol. 64, No. 11)
Submit an Article

Dear readers!
Please note that free access to full-text issues of the Journal is being opened at our WEB-site after 6 months of the date of publications.The work on deepening the open archive of full-text issues will be continued.

Dear colleagues, authors and readers!
We kindly request you to turn to editor-in-chief and executive secretary directly concerning reviewing scientific publications in our journal. Only editor-in-chief takes decision on order and publication the reviews!

Dear readers!
This is to inform the researchers of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations that electronic versions of the I, II, III issues of 2020 of French magazine Politique étrangère are now available. Those who are interested, please personally address to the editorial staff of MEMO Journal (room 18-17) with an electronic media.

In response to the challenges of our time the Editorial board continues to open new thematic rubrics:

“World Energy Sector after Pandemic”. We plan to publish articles presenting in-depth analysis of influence of Pandemic on the global energy sector and forecasts of further developments in its various branches.

“Civilization processes of modern development” is a new rubric opened by MEMO Journal in 2020. It will be devoted to the analysis of the influence of civilizational factors and inter-civilizational interactions on the political and socio-economic development of the world at whole, regions and countries.

“Africa today and tomorrow”The rubric devoted to contemporary issues of Africa which is attracting growing interest of the world's leading actors. We plan to publish the articles analyzing the status of statehood, socio-economic and political development of the countries of Black continent, as well as the integration processes between them.


"World Eсonomy and International Relations" announces a contest for the best joint academic publications of domestic and foreign researchers and experts in topical issues of the world economy and international relations. The winners will be selected according to the results of peer reviewing and discussion at the Editorial Board. The articles will be published in priority order.


The print version of “World Economy and International Relations” journal is distributed by advance subscription only, and is not offered for retail sale. To subscribe please address to any post office in Russia by referring to the Federal Postal Service Union Catalogue, section “ARSMI”, the journal index is 70542. The subscription may be made for the whole subscription period or starting from any nearest available month for desired number of issues.

To purchase the full-text electronic version of the journal’s issue/article please address to the WEB portal of Scientific electronic library or URL:

In journal
2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 |

The author’s opinions may not coincide with the position of editorial