Science and Economic Development in Countries of the East and the West

DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2017-61-8-37-47
L. Fridman (,
Institute of Asian and African Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University (IAAS MSU), build. 1, 11, Mokhovaya Str., Moscow 125009, Russian Federation;
E. Imamkulieva (,
Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 12, Rozhdestvenka Str., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation

Abstract. The article deals with the comparison between groups of countries based on two indicators: GDP per capita and a percentage of expenditures on research and development (R&D) in GDP. The data are given on 103 states and territories where statistical indicators were available. Despite the fact that in general, statistical data confirm an overall upward drift in expenditures on R&D as GDP per capita grows, it is shown that there are multiple cases stepping out of this trend. Two most populated countries of the world are among them: China and India, including 40–50% of the world population. Special focus of the article is on China whose example shows that the strategy of an accelerated R&D development in conditions of high economic growth rates within 10–15 years, may start even in a group of “lower-middle income” countries, and implementation of this strategy in R&D can provide a real breakthrough with achievement of indicators typical not for developing countries but for developed economies (for instance, average indicators for the Eurozone states). The researchers make an attempt to determine an optimum level of R&D appropriations by arithmetic calculations based on direct comparisons of such indicators as GDP per capita and the share of expenditures on R&D. However, the examples of China, India, South Korea, also Russia and, on the other side, a specified group euphemistically termed as “Oil and Gas Countries” highlight the fact that such comparisons could be useful, meaningful, cognitive, though not regulatory or, much less, directorial. 

Keywords: GDP, appropriations, expenditures on research and development (R&D), expenditures on science 


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2. Welcome to UIS.Stat. Available at: ReportId=2655 (assessed 04.02.2017).

3. China Statistical Yearbook 2016. Available at: (assessed 05.02.2017).

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5. World Development Indicators 2012. Available at: (assessed 09.02.2017). 

Registered in System SCIENCE INDEX

For citation:
Friedman L., Imamkulieva E. Science and Economic Development in Countries of the East and the West. World Eonomy and International Relations, 2017, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 37-47.

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